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Organic solar cells

At the Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) research group at SDU NanoSYD, we are doing research and development within new types of organic and hybrid thin-film solar cells. The work encompass new ways to improve device efficiency, device stability and device up-scaling. This includes research and development activities on:

  • Stabilization of OPV through additive mixing
  • Metal oxide interlayers for OPV and perovskite solar cells
  • Up-conversion for improved light-absorption
  • Roll-to-Roll (R2R) processes for OPV manufacturing
  • Stability assessment for OPV and perovskite solar cells

 Organic solar cells at the OPV group, SDU NanoSYD are fabricated and characterized using various different methods and techniques. The equipment portfolio encompasses a double glovebox-connected cluster deposition system, including both organic and thermal evaporation plus reactive sputtering . The electrical characterization equipment includes besides standard J-V and Quantum Efficiency (QE) measurements also a dedicated lifetime measurement setup (top right) and transient electrical measurements. Optical characterization techniques include steady-state and transient PL, FTIR and UV-VIS absorption.

The facilities include also a complete R2R processing lab that uses both R2R vacuum sputter deposition, R2R slot-die coating and R2R lamination for developing large-scale, flexible solar cell devices. One main aim of the SDU NanoSYD OPV group is to bridge research in laboratory scale solar cell technology to development of up-scaled R2R modules, using technology transfer from a complete set of complementary and interconnected processing techniques  (lab2fab). The Lab2fab concept thus bridges development of high efficiency solar cells on lab scale, fabricated in controlled environments, to manufacturing of printed, up-scaled modules developed on an industrial R2R scale, as illustrated below.

People in the OPV group

Morten Madsen, Professor WSR          
Vida Engmann, Assistant Professor
Jonas Sandby Lissau, Postdoc
Mehrad Ahmadpour, Postdoc
Um Kanta Aryal, Postdoc
Mariam Ahmad, PhD student
Michela Prete, PhD student
Jani Lamminaho, R2R engineer
Mohammed Amir Yakoob, Research Assistant
Lena Nguyen, PhD student (working at Amor Solar Power Films)
Naas Djeddaoui, visiting PhD student
Pamir Hamid, Master student


Externally funded projects

12. Tuning the Photostability of Organic Photovoltaics Components
Independent Research Fund Denmark - Technology and Production Sciences (DFF FTP - Research Project 2)
Project duration: 1 Jul 2020 – 30 Jun 2024

11. SMART - Structures of Materials in Real Time
Ministry of Higher Education and Science (UFM)
Project duration:  1 January 2019 - 31 December 2023

10. Development of Smart Materials: From research to production
Bitten & Mads Clausen Foundation
Project duration: 1 May 2019 - 31 Dec 2021

9. Reactively sputtered metal oxides for high performance photovoltaics  (React-PV)
Independent Research Fund Denmark - Technology and Production Sciences (DFF FTP - Research Project 2)
Project duration: 1 Oct 2018 - 31 Mar 2022

8. IMPULSE-OPV: Integrated Molecular Plasmon Upconverter for Low-cost, Scalable, and Efficient Organic Photovoltaics
Villum Foundation - Experiment (Postdoc Jonas Sandby Lissau)
Project duration: 1 May 2018 - 31 April 2020

7. 2Imprezs
Interreg NSR
Project duration: 1 September 2017 - 30 August 2021

6. Mechanical and photochemical stabilization of flexible organic solar cells (Compliant-PV)
Villum Foundation - Research Project
Project duration: 1 January 2017 - 31 December 2019

5. RollFlex – An innovation project center for Roll-to-Roll processed flexible devices
Interreg 5A
Project duration: 1 April 2016 - 31 March 2019

4. High-efficiency solar cells by spectral transformation using nano-optical enhancement (SunTune)
Project duration: 1 May 2015 - 30 April 2019

3. Stabilization of Organic Solar Cells by Ternary Blending Active Layers with Stabilizing Additives (Stabil-O)
The Danish Research Council for Technology and Production Sciences (DFF FTP, Postdoc Vida Engmann)
Project duration: 1 June 2015 - 31 May 2017

2. Thin-film Hybrid Interfaces: a training initiative for the design of next-generation energy devices (THINFACE)
EU FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN)
Project duration: 1 September 2013 – 31 August 2017

1. High efficiency solar cells for PV devices
Fabrikant Mads Clausen Foundation
Project duration: 1 September 2013 – 31 August 2014


1. Devices from Hybrid and Organic Materials, Editors V. Turkovic, M. Madsen and  H.-G. Rubahn, Editor-in-Chief Mato Knez, part of the 'World Scientific Reference of Hybrid Materials' book series, DOI:  10.1142/10993 (2019) Link

Journal Publications

49. Photo-induced and electrical degradation of organic field-effect transistors, P. P. Cielecki, T. Leißner, M. Ahmanpour, M. Madsen, H.-G. Rubahn, J. Fiutowski and J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, Org. Electon. 82, 105717 (2020) Link

48. Dibenzo-Tetraphenyl Diindeno as Hole Transport Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells FabricationM. Pegu, L. Calio, M. Ahmadpour, H.-G. Rubahn, S. Kazim, M. Madsen and S. Ahmad, Emergent Mater. 3, 109 (2020) link

47.  Degradation behaviour of scalable non-fullerene organic solar cells assessed by outdoor and indoor ISOS stability protocols, W. Greenbank, N. Djeddaoui, E. Destouesse, J. Lamminaho, M. Prete, L. Boukezzi, T. Ebel, L. Bessissa, H.-G. Rubahn, V. Turkovic and M. Madsen, Energy Technol. 2000295 ,

46.  Identification of degradation mechanisms in slot-die coated non-fullerene ITO-free organic solar cells using different illumination spectra, B. Arredondo, G. del Pozo, E. Hernández-Balaguera, D. Martín-Martín, M. C. López-González, B. Romero, E. López-Fraguas, R. Vergaz, X. Quintana, J. Lamminaho, E. Destouesse, M. Ahmadpour, V. Turkovic and M. Madsen, ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 3, 7, 6476–6485 (2020), DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.0c00711 (2020)

45.  Recent advances in fiber-shaped and planar-shaped textile solar cells , M. Hatamvand, E. Kamrani, M. Lira-Cantu, M. Madsen, B. R. Patil, P. Vivo, M.M. Shahid, A. Numan, I. Ahmed, Y. Zhan , Nano Energy, 71, 104609 (2020)

44. Planar perovskite solar cells using fullerene C70 as electron selective transport layer, F. Jafari, A. Behjat, N. Torabib, M. Ahmadpour, B. R. Patil, V. Engmann, and M Madsen, International J. Opt. Photon, ’14, 15-24 (2020)

43. Consensus on ISOS Protocols for Stability Assessment and Reporting for Perovskite Photovoltaics , M. Khenkin et. al., Nature Energy, 5, 35  (2020) Link

42. Sputter deposited titanium oxide layers as efficient electron selective contacts in organic photovoltaic devices, M. Mirsafaei, P. B. Jensen, M. Ahmadpour, H. Lakhotiya, J. L. Hansen, B. Julsgaard, H.-G. Rubahn, R. Lazzari, N. Witkowski, P. Balling and M. Madsen, ACS Appl. Energy Mater, 3, 253  (2020) Link

41. Electrospun ZnO nanofiber interlayers for enhanced performance of organic photovoltaic devices, F. Mohtaram, S. Borhani, M. Ahmadpour, P. Fojan, A. Behjat, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen, Solar Energy, 197, 311 (2020)

40. Improving the efficiency of upconversion by light concentration using nanoparticle design, S. P. Madsen, J. Christiansen, R. E. Christiansen, J. Vester-Petersen, S. H. Møller, H. Lakhotiya, A. Nazir, E. Eriksen, S. Roesgaard, O. Sigmund, J. S. Lissau, E.Destouesse, M. Madsen, B. Julsgaard and P. Balling, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 53, 073001 (2020) Link

39. Oxygen-Dependent Photophysics and Photochemistry of Prototypical Compounds for Organic Photovoltaics: Inhibiting Degradation Initiated by Singlet Oxygen at a Molecular Level, M. Bregnhøj, M. Prete, V. Engmann,A. U. Petersen, M. Brøndsted Nielsen, M. Madsen and P. R. Ogilby, Methods Appl. Fluores.,  8, 014001 (2020) Link

38. Slot-die processing and encapsulation of non-fullerene based ITO-free organic solar cells and modules, E. Destouesse, M. Top, J. Lamminaho, H.-G. Rubahn, J. Fahlteich and M. Madsen, Flex. Print. Electron,4, 045004 (2019) Link

37. Biomimetic approach to inhibition of photooxidation in organic solar cells using beta-carotene as an additive, V. Turkovic, M. Prete, M. Bregnhøj, L. Inasaridze, D. Volyniuk, F. Obrezkov, J. V. Grazulevicius, S. Engmann, H.-G. Rubahn, P. A. Troshin, P. R. Ogilby and M. Madsen, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 11, 44, 41570 (2019) Link

36. Inverted organic solar cells with non-clustering bathocuproine (BCP) cathode interlayers obtained by fullerene doping, F. Jafari, B. R. Patil, F. Mohtaram, A. L. F. Cauduro, H.-G. Rubahn, A. Behjat and M. Madsen, Sci. Rep, 9, 10422 (2019) Link

35. Degradation pathways in standard and inverted DBP-C70 based organic solar cells, G. Sherafatipour, J. Benduhn, B. R Patil, M. Ahmadpour, D. Spoltore, H.-G. Rubahn, K. Vandewal and M. Madsen, Sci. Rep., 9, 4024 (2019) Link

34. Inhibiting Photooxidative Degradation in Organic Solar Cells using Stabilizing Additives, V. Turkovic and M. Madsen, Book chapter in 'Devices from Hybrid and Organic Materials', Ed. V. Turkovic, M. Madsen and H.-G. Rubahn, World Scientific Reference of Hybrid Materials book series, DOI:  10.1142/10993 (2019) Link

33. Crystalline molybdenum oxide layers as efficient and stable hole contacts for organic photovoltaic devices, M. Ahmadpour, A. Cauduro, C. Methivier, B. Kunert, C. Labanti, R. Resel, V. Turkovic, H.-G. Rubahn, N. Witkowski, A. Schmid and M. Madsen, ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2, 420 (2019) Link

32. Photo-induced degradation mechanisms in 4P-NPD thin films, P. P. Cielecki, J. Adam, T. Leißner, B. R. Patil, M. Madsen, H.-G. Rubahn, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen and J. Fiutowski, Org. Electron. 63, 114 (2018) Link

31. Benzothiadiazole-triphenylamine as efficient exciton blocking layer in small molecule based organic solar cells, L. Calio, B. R. Patil, J. Bendum, K. Vandewal, H.-G. Rubahn, M. Madsen, S. Kazim and S. Ahmad, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2, 2296 (2018) Link

30. Area-dependent behavior of bathocuproine (BCP) as cathode interfacial layers in organic photovoltaic cells, B. R. Patil, M. Ahmadpour, G. Sherafatipour, T. Qamar, A. F. Fernández, K. Zojer, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen, Sci. Rep., 8, 12608 (2018) Link

29. Stability of Organic Solar Cells with PCDTBT donor polymer: an interlaboratory study, L. Ciammaruchi, R. Oliveira, A. Charas, Tulus, E. von Hauff, G. Polino, F. Brunetti, R. Hansson, E. Moons, M. Krassas, E. Kymakis, J. G. Sánchez, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Züfle, R. Roesch, T. Faber, H. Hoppe, S. Veenstra, G. Zanotti, E. Katz, A. Pälvi, B. Romero, E. Parlak, L. M. Stagno, V. Turkovic, H.-G. Rubahn, M. Madsen, V. Kažukauskas, M. Lira-Cantu, S. Shanmugam and Y. Galagan,  J. Mater. Res., 33, 1909 (2018) Link

28. Modeling Multi-junction Solar Cells by Non-Local Tunneling and Sub-Cell Analysis, Y. Liu, M. Ahmadpour, J. Adam, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen, “Modeling Multi-junction Solar Cells by Non-Local Tunneling and Sub-Cell Analysis”, IEEE J. Photovolt. 8, 1363 (2018) Link

27. Numerical Analysis on Effects of Experimental Ga Grading on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell Performance, Y. Liu, B. Li, S. Lin, W. Liu, J. Adam, M. Madsen, H.-G. Rubahn and Y. Sun, J. Phys. Chem. Solids., 120, 190 (2018) Link

26. Improving the efficiency of solar cells by upconverting sunlight using field enhancement from optimized nano structures, P. Balling, J. Christiansen, R. E. Christiansen, E. Eriksen, H, Lakhotiya, M. Mirsafaei, S. H. Møller, A. Nazir, J. Vester-Petersen, B. R. Jeppesen, P. B. Jensen, J. L. Hansen, S. K. Ram, O. Sigmund, M. Madsen, S. P. Madsen, B. Julsgaard, Optical Materials, 83, 279 (2018) Link

25. Reconsidering Figures of Merit for the Performance and Stability of Perovskite Photovoltaics, M. V. Khenkin, K. M. Anoop, I. Visoly-Fisher, Y. Galagan, F. Di Giacomo, B. R. Patil, G. Sherafatipour, V. Turkovic, H.-G. Rubahn, M. Madsen, T. Merckx, G. Uytterhoeven, J. P. A. Bastos, T. Aernouts, F. Brunetti, M. Lira-Cantu and Eugene A. Katz, Energy Environ. Sci., 11, 739 (2018) Link

24. All soft lithographic approach to fabricate InAs nanowire field-effect transistors, S. H. Lee, S.-H. Shin, M. Madsen, K. Takei, J. Nah and M. H. Lee, Sci. Rep., 8, 3204 (2018) Link

23. Dynamics of photoinduced degradation of perovskite photovoltaics: from reversible to irreversible processes, M. V. Khenkin, K.M. Anoop, I. Visoly-Fisher, S. Kolusheva, Y. Galagan, F. Di Giacomo, O. Vukovic, B. R. Patil, G. Sherafatipour, V. Turkovic, H.-G. Rubahn, M. Madsen, A. V. Mazanik, and E. A. Katz, ACS Appl. Energy Mater., 1, 2, 799 (2018) Link

22. Cu(II) and Zn(II) based Phthalocyanine as Hole selective layers for Perovskite Solar Cells, L. Calio, J. Follana-Berná, S. Kazim, M. Madsen, H.-G. Rubahn, Á. Sastre-Santos and S. Ahmad, Sustainable Energy Fuels, 2017, 1, 2071 (2017) - Link

21. Work Function Mapping of MoOx Thin-Films for Application in Electronic Devices, A. L. F. Cauduro, R. dos Reis, G. Chen, A. K. Schmid, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen,  Ultramicroscopy, 183, 99 (2017) - Link

20. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells, B. R. Patil, M. Mirsafaei, P. P. Cielecki, A. L. F. Cauduro, J. Fiutowski, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen, Nanotechnology, 28, 405303 ( 2017)- Link

19. 4P-NPD ultra thin-films as efficient exciton blocking layers in inverted DBP/C70 based organic solar cells, B. R. Patil, Y. Liu, T. Qamar, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 50, 385101 (2017) - Link

18. Current Matching in Multifold DBP/C70 Organic Solar Cells with Open Circuit Voltages of up to 6.44 V, M. Ahmadpour, Y. Liu, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen, IEEE J. Photovolt., 7, 1319 (2017) - Link

17. Electrical properties of organic solar cells with nano-structured bottom electrodes, M. Mirsafaei, A. H. Fallahpour, P. Lugli, H.-G. Rubahn, J. Adam and M. Madsen, Sci. Rep., 7, 5300 (2017) - Link

16. Crystalline Molybdenum Oxide Thin-Films for Application as Interfacial Layers in Optoelectronic Devices, A. L. F. Cauduro, R. dos Reis, G. Chen, A. K. Schmid, C. Méthivier, H.-G. Rubahn, L. Bossard-Giannesini, H. Cruguel, N. Witkowski and M. Madsen, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 9, 7717 (2017) - Link

15. Enhanced absorption in organic thin-films from imprinted concave nanostructures, A. J. Goszczak, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen, Mater. Sci,  23, 6 (2017) - Link

14. Periodically arranged colloidal gold nanoparticles for enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells, M. Mirsafaei, A. L. F. Cauduro, C. Kunstmann-Olsen, A. M. Davidson, S. Hassing, M. A. B. Hedegaard, H.-G. Rubahn, J. Adam and M. Madsen, SPIE Proc. 9898, 989810 (2016) - Link

13. Long-Term Stabilization of Organic Solar Cells using UV Absorbers, V. Turkovic, S. Engmann, N. Tsierkezos, H.
Hoppe, M. Madsen, H.-G. Rubahn, U. Ritter and G. Gobsch, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys, 49, 125604 (2016) - Link

12. Long-Term Stabilization of Organic Solar Cells using Hydoperoxide Decomposers as Additives, V. Turkovic, S. Engmann, N. Tsierkezos, H.
Hoppe, M. Madsen, H.-G. Rubahn, U. Ritter and G. Gobsch, Appl. Phys. A, 122, 255 (2016) - Link

11. Nanoscale Aluminum concaves for light-trapping in organic thin-films, A. J. Goszczak, J. Adam, P. P. Cielecki, J. Fiutowski, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen, Opt. Commun., 370, 135 (2016) - Link

10. The Role of Charge Transfer State on the Reduced Langevin Recombination in Organic Solar Cells: A Theoretical Study,
Y. Liu, K. Zojer, B. Lassen, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen, J. Phys. Chem. C, 119, (2015) 26588 - Link

9. Tuning the optoelectronic properties of amorphous MoOx films by reactive sputtering, A. L. F. Cauduro, Z. E. Fabrim, M. Ahmadpour, P. F. Fichtner, S. Hassing, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen. Appl. Phys. Lett, 106 (2015) 202101  - Link

8. Nanoscale concave structures for field enhancement in organic thin films, A. J. Goszczak, J. Adam, P. P. Cielecki, J. Fiutowski, H.-G. Rubahn and M. Madsen. SPIE Proc, 9547 (2015) 954731 - Link

7. Organiske solceller: En lys fremtid med solenergi, V. Engmann and M. Madsen. Dansk Kemi, 96 (2015) 24-26- Link

6. Crystallites of α-Sexithiophene in Bilayer Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells Double Efficiency, M. Radziwon, A. L. F. Cauduro, M. Madsen and H.-G. Rubahn. Journal of Nanomaterials, 482372 (2014) - Link

5. Growth of alpha-sexithiophene nanostructures on C60 thin film layers, M. Radziwon, M. Madsen, F. Balzer, R. Resel and H.-G. Rubahn. Thin Solid Films, 558 (2014) 165 - Link

4. Flexible PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells with integrated grating structures, R.M. de Oliveira Hansen, Y. Liu, M. Madsen, and H.-G. Rubahn. Proc. SPIE, 8830 (2013) 883021 - Link

3. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures
. R.M. de Oliveira Hansen, Y. Liu, M. Madsen, and H.-G. Rubahn.  Nanotechnology, 24 (2013) 145301 - Link

2. Organisk Energiteknologi på vej frem, M. Madsen and J. Kjelstrup-Hansen. Aktuel Naturvidenskab, 5 (2013) 14-16 - Link

1. Efficiency enhancement of ITO-free organic polymeric solar cells by light trapping. R. M. de Oliveira Hansen, M. Schiek, Y. Liu, M. Madsen, and H.-G. Rubahn. Proc. SPIE, 8438 (2012) 843813 - Lin