I de seneste år har der været et skærpet fokus på dissociation som en mulighed forud eksisterende sårbarhed for udviklingen af PTSD. De mest karakteristiske kendetegn ved dissociation, involverer negative symptomer såsom hukommelsestab, tab af kropslig styring og tab af somato-sensorisk opmærksomhed (f.eks. ved depersonalisering).
Videnscenteret bidrager med forskning om dissociation og dennes rolle som forudgående sårbarhed i udviklingen af PTSD. Der er bl.a. lavet undersøgelser på sammenhængen mellem denne forudgående sårbarhed og Big Five personlighedstræk som yderligere bidrag til vores forståelse af udviklingen af PTSD.
Læs mere om Videnscenteret bidrag på siden her.
Palic, S., Carlsson, J., Armour, C. & Elklit A.: (2015). Assessment of dissociation in Bosnian treatment-seeking refugees in Denmark. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 69, 307-314. Doi: 10.3109/08039488.2014.977344
Lahav, Y. & Elklit, A. (2016). The cycle of healing - dissociation and attachment during treatment of CSA survivors. Child Abuse and Neglect, 60, 67-76. Doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.09.009
Objective: This study investigated whether pre-deployment dissociation was associated with previously identified post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom trajectories from before to 2.5 years after military deployment. Furthermore, it examined whether the tendency to dissociate, pre-deployment personality factors, conceptualized by the Big Five model, and previous trauma represented independent risk factors for post-deployment PTSD symptoms. Method: This prospective study included the entire team of 743 soldiers from the Danish Contingent of the International Security Assistance Force 7 deployed to Afghanistan in 2009. Data consisted of self-report measures and were collected six times: before deployment; during deployment; and 1-3 weeks, 2 months, 7 months and 2.5 years after homecoming. Results: The findings indicate significant associations between pre-deployment dissociation and six PTSD trajectories (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.120). Based on mean differences in dissociation for the six trajectories, two main groups emerged: a group with high dissociation scores at predeployment, which had moderate PTSD symptom levels at pre-deployment and fluctuated over time; and a group with low dissociation scores at pre-deployment, which had low initial PTSD symptom levels and diverged over time. Our study also confirmed previous findings of a positive association between neuroticism and dissociation (r = 0.31, p < 0.001). This suggests that negative emotionality may be a vulnerability that enhances dissociative experiences, although a causal link cannot be concluded from the findings. Finally, pre-deployment dissociation, pre-deployment neuroticism and a history of traumatic events, as independent factors, were significant predictors of post-deployment PTSD (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.158). Conclusions: The study emphasizes the multiplicity of factors involved in the development of PTSD, and group differences in dissociative symptoms support the heterogeneity in PTSD. Further, this study points to specific aspects of personality that may be targeted in a clinical setting and in pre-deployment assessments in the military.
Ponce de Leon, B., Andersen, S. Karstoft, K. & Elklit, A. (2017). Pre-deployment dissociation and personality as risk factors for post-deployment PTSD in Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9:1, 1443672. Doi: 10.1080/20008198.2018.1443672
While post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic disorders are classified as separate disorders, there is increasing evidence that the two may be related. This chapter reviews the literature pertaining to post‐psychotic PTSD by addressing the trauma of psychotic experiences and the trauma of associated hospitalization procedures. It also reviews the literature pertaining to the co‐occurrence of psychotic experiences and PTSD. Shaner and Eth first documented that the experience of schizophrenia could lead to the future development of PTSD symptoms. In the years since the publication of their seminal study, numerous researchers have addressed the contribution made to PTSD symptoms by psychotic symptomatology and hospitalization procedures, such as coercive interventions and involuntary treatment. Dissociation is broadly described as a disruption of the integrated functions relating to consciousness, memory, identity, or perception. Dissociation has long been associated with PTSD. Peri‐traumatic dissociation creates fragmented memories of a trauma event, which are subsequently thought to develop into post‐traumatic symptomatology.
Armour, C., Shevlin, M., Elklit, A. & Houston, J.: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with psychotic features. In A. Moskowitz, I. Schäfetraumar, & M. J. Dorahy (Eds.): Trauma, Dissociation & Psychosis (pp 257-270). Chicester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118585948.ch16
Murphy, S., Elklit, A., Murphy, J., Hyland, P. & Shevlin, M. (2017). A Cross-Lagged Panel Study of Dissociation and Posttraumatic Stress in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73, 1370-1381. Doi: 10.1002/jclp.22439.