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Green Defense Literature

Links and copies of relevant Green Defense and Triple Net Zero articles, reports and materials as provided by the Working Group Chairs. 



"Implementing a DOD Net-Zero Strategy", by Wendi Goldsmith and Col. Bart Barnhart, Military Engineer 2011

"Promoting Sustainability Through Net Zero Strategies", NETZERO Community Workshop, 2014

"Green Defence Framework", Koster (2014)

"Lisbon Summit Declaration", NATO (2010)

"Chicago Summit Declaration", NATO (2012)

"Wales Summit Declaration", NATO (2014)

"Riga Summit Declaration", NATO (2009)

"Active Engagement, Modern Defence, Strategic Concept", NATO (2010)

"Net Zero speech material", (2013/2014)

"Army progressing toward Net Zero and a culture of sustainability", Harrover, Keysar and Kingery

“Net Zero Progress Report Net Zero Pilot Installation Initiative 2012”, Assistant Secretary of the Army, US Army (2013)

"Forsvarsministeriets klima- og energistrategi 2012-2015", Forsvarsministeriet (2012)


NATO Standardization Documents (STANAGs)


"Environmental protection standards and norms for military compounds in NATO operations (AJEPP-1)"


"Best environmental protection practices for military compounds in NATO operations (AJEPP-2)"


"Environmental management system in NATO operations (AJEPP-3)"


"Joint NATO doctrine for environmental protection during NATO-led military activities (AJEPP-4)"


"NATO compound environmental file during NATO-led operations (AJEPP-6)"

Net Zero Carbon & Energy combined:

"An Energy-Secure DOD future", by Col. Bart Barnhart, Wendi Goldsmith and Stacey Hirata, The Military Engineer 2011.

"Department of Defense Climate Change Adaption Roadmap", 2014 (2MB)

"Net Zero Energy Military Installations: A Guide to Assessment and Planning", Samuel Booth et al, 2010 (2MB)

"4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) Integrating smart thermal grids into future sustainable energy systems", H. Lund et al., Energy 68 (2014)

"Changes in heat load profile of typical Danish multi-storey buildings when energy-renovated and supplied with low-temperature district heating", Harrestrup and Svendsen, International Journal of Sustainable Energy (2013)

"Heat planning for fossil-fuel-free district heating areas with extensive end-use heat savings: A case study of the Copenhagen district heating area in Denmark", Harrestrup and Svendsen, Energy Policy 68 (2014)

"Heating and Domestic Hot Water Systems in Buildings Supplied by Low-Temperature District Heating", Brand, DTU (2013)

"The Development of a new District Heating Concept", Rosa, DTU (2013)

"NATO's Role in Energy Security", NATO (2011)

"Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts", Nasseri and Shonder (2013)

"Share of renewables in electricity production (incl hydro)", Enerdata (2014)

"Total energy consumption", Enerdata (2014)

"Policy on power generation for deployed force infrastructure", Rasmussen (2014)

"Policy Power Generation for deployd force infrastructure", Rasmussen, action sheet (2014)

"Energy security: a major factor in international security", NATO (2013)

"Experts discuss ''Innovative Energy Solutions for Military Application'' in Vilnius", NATO (2014)

"Analysis and Monitoring of Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate in a School Before and After Deep Energy Renovation", Bergsøe, Mørck, Rose and Thomsen, ASHRAE (2015)

Integration of Master Planning and Energy Planning: From Detailed to Conceptual Analysis, Case, Liesen, Swanson, Yu and Zhivov, ASHRAE (2015)

"Business and Technical Concepts for Deep Energy Retrofit of Public Buildings", ASHRAE (2014)

"Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations", Booth, Barnett, Burman, Hambrick, Helwig, and Westby, NREL (2010)

"A Computational Framework for Low-Energy Community Analysis and Optimization", Barnes, Case, Liesen, Stinson, Swanson and Zhivov, ASHRAE (2014)

"Community-Scale Energy Supply and Distribution Optimization Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming", Barnes, Case, Liesen, Swanson and Zhivov, ASHRAE (2014)

"Energy Optimization for Fort Carson Combat Aviation Brigade Complex", Budde, Fiedler, Guthrie, Herron, Liesen, Ochse, Richter, Schad, Shepherd, Steitz, Turner and Zhivov, ASHRAE (2014)

"Energy Master Planning Towards Net-Zero Energy Communities/Campuses", Broers, Case, Kimman, Liesen and Zhivov, ASHRAE (2014)

"Lessons Learned from Net Zero Energy Assessments and Renewable Energy Projects at Military Installations", Anderson, Booth, Callahan, Katz and Tetreault, NREL (2011)

"ARMY NET ZERO, Energy Roadmap and Program Summary", DOD (2014)

"From U.S. Army Installation to Zero Energy Community: The B&O Bad Aibling Park Looks to the Future", Boehm and Kerschberger, ASHRAE (2014)

"Energy initiatives task force - power point"

"Integration of Master Planning and Energy Planning: From Detailed to Conceptual Analysis", Case et al., ASHRAE (2015)

"Energy Master Planning Toward Net Zero Energy Installation - Portsmouth Naval Shipyard", Liesen et al., ASHRAE (2015)

"Implementation of Energy Strategies in Communities From Pilot Project in Salzburg, Austria, to Urban Strategy", Strasser, ASHRAE (2015)

"Energy Master Planning Toward Net Zero Energy Installation - U.S. Military Academy, West Point", Zhivov et al., ASHRAE (2015)

"The Army's approach to installation and operational energy security challenges", Hammack (Chapter 13)


Net Zero Water:

"Army Net Zero Water Balance and Roadmap Programmatic Summary", Honorable Katherine Hammack, Marc Kodac et al. (Public summary - 3MB)

“Directive 2006/118/EC of the European parliament and of the council: On the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration”, Fontelles and Pekkarinen, Official Journal of the European Communities (2006)

“Commission Directive 2014/101/EU: Amending Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy”, Barroso, Official Journal of the European Communities (2014)

“Directive 2000/60/EC of the European parliament and of the council: Establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy”, Fontaine and Glavany, Official Journal of the European Communities (2000)

”Commission statement”, Official Journal of the European Communities (2000)

“The EU Water Framework Directive”, The European commission

“Study on water efficiency standards”, Benito et al., DG Enviroment (2009)

“Socio-hydrology: A new science of people and water”, Sivapalan, Savenije and Blöschl, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (2011)

“Modern water and its discontents: A history of hydrosocial renewal”, Linton, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (2013)

“Risk based principles for defining and managing water security”, Hall and Borgomeo, Royal Society Publishing (2013)

“The Persistent Impacts of Norm-based Messaging and their Implications for Water Conservation”, Bernedo et al., Journal of Consumer Policy

“The Psychology of Drinking Water Quality: An exploratory study”, Syme and Williams, Water resources research (1993)

“Water Security: Putting the Concept into Practice”, Van Beek and Arriens, Global Water Partnership (2014)

“Army Water Security Strategy”, Army Environmental Policy Institute (2011)

“Heterogeneous treatment effects and mechanisms in information-based environmental policies: Evidence from a large-scale field experiment”, Ferraro and Miranda, Elsevier (2013)

“Historicising the Hydrosocial Cycle”, Schmidt, Water Alternatives (2014)

”Perceptions of water use”, Attari, PNAS, (2014)

“Residential end uses of water”, Mayer et al., AWWARF and AWWA (1999)

“The Persistence of Treatment Effects with Norm-Based Policy Instruments: Evidence from a Randomized Environmental Policy Experiment”, Ferraro et al., American Economic Review (2011)

“Using nonpeculiary strategies to influence behavior: Evidence from a large-scale field experiment”, Ferraro and Price, The Review of Economics and Statistics (2013)

“Fort Riley Net Zero Water Program Water Balance Report”, Elam et al., U.S. Department of Energy (2012)

“Fort Riley Net Zero Water Roadmap”, Cabe et al., US Army (2013)

"Requirements for water potability during field operations and in emergency situations", Aksit, NATO (2014)  

"Federal High Performance and Sustainable Buildings", Website

"EPA -Water-Saving Products", Website

"Best Management Practices for Water Efficiency", Website


Installation (and City) Planning:

"Building Energy Efficient Cities: New Guidance Notes for Mayors", World Bank Group (2014)

"Planning Energy Efficient and Livable Cities", Chen, Liu and Salat, ESMAP (2014)


Additional Literature:

Articles and documents related to Smart Energy (a part of Green Defence) can also be found at






Last Updated 16.08.2016