Already when the then Odense University was established in 1966, there was a faculty for natural and medical sciences. Research in the natural science, however, only took place to the extent necessary to provide medical students with research-based teaching. Not until 1974 was the Faculty of Science established as an independent main area.
In the 1990s, the faculty established several academic engineering programmes, which led to the faculty changing its name to the Faculty of Science and Engineering.
In 2006, when the Odense University College of Engineering was incorporated into the University of Southern Denmark, it was decided to split the Faculty of Science and Technology. Thus, the Faculty of Science was established in its current form.