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The Danish Center of Psychotraumatology

Guilt and shame

Project on post-traumatic shame and guilt. The phenomenon was examined across cultures and between different trauma groups to see if guilt and shame are an integral part of a normal post-trauma reaction. The main findings of the study suggest that the correlation between guilt and shame is too high to examine only one, and they also often co-occur. More studies are needed in this area to better separate the two concepts from each other. With DSM-5, shame and guilt have once again become a PTSD symptom
The project was led by Alon Blum.


Blum, A. (2008). Shame and Guilt, Misconceptions and Controversies: A Critical Review of the Literature. Traumatology, 14(3), 91–102. Doi: 10.1177/1534765608321070

Hansen, T. P. & Elklit, A. (1993). Self-blame and guilt in victims of violence. Psykologisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet.

Last Updated 01.07.2023