Metabolic and Genetic Risk Factors Are the Strongest Predictors of Severity of Alcohol-Related Liver Fibrosis
Mads Israelsen, Helene Bæk Juel, Sönke Detlefsen, Bjørn Stæhr Madsen, Ditlev Nytoft Rasmussen, Trine R. Larsen, Maria Kjærgaard, Mary Jo Fernandes Jensen, Stefan Stender, Torben Hansen, Aleksander Krag and Maja Thiele
Background & Aims
Individual risk for developing alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) varies greatly. We hypothesized that metabolic risk factors and genetic polymorphisms predict severity of ALD.
Biopsy-controlled, cross-sectional study in patients with a history of excessive drinking. We measured the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), plasma triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL), and total cholesterol. Moreover, we genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms in PNPLA3 (rs738409C>G), TM6SF2 (rs58542926C>T), MBOAT7 (rs641738C>T), and HSD17B13 (rs72613567T>TA). We assessed predictors of higher fibrosis stage using multivariable ordered logistic regression.
Of 325 included patients, 25% had severe fibrosis or cirrhosis and 59% had HOMA-IR ≥2.5. HOMA-IR increased for each fibrosis stage, while there was a similar decrease in LDL and total cholesterol. Individuals with risk variant PNPLA3 rs738409-G or TM6SF2 rs58542926-T had higher fibrosis stage. In multivariable regression, HOMA-IR ≥2.5 (OR = 3.04, 95% CI 1.90-4.87), LDL <2.60 mmol/L (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.33-3.16), TM6SF2 rs58542926-T (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.17-3.37), age above 50 years (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.70), and PNPLA3 rs738409-G (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.11-2.12) independently predicted higher fibrosis stage. Independent predictors of hepatic inflammatory activity were HOMA-IR, active drinking, age, and PNPLA3 risk variant. Active drinking, elevated triglycerides, and PNPLA3 risk variant predicted steatosis.
Insulin resistance is the strongest predictor of liver fibrosis stage and hepatic inflammation in patients with alcohol-related liver disease. Genetic susceptibility further aggravates this risk. These data highlight the clinical value of detailed metabolic and genetic profiling of patients with excessive alcohol use.