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Possible side effects of the HPV vaccine among Nordic girls and boys: Does the vaccine affect educational level?

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of sexual transmitted infections and some high risk HPV subtypes are causes of cervical cancer. HPV vaccines were included in the child vaccination program in the Nordic countries between 2009 and 2013. In Denmark, the proportion of girls vaccinated decreased between 2014 and 2017 while the proportions were more stable in the Nordic countries.

All vaccines have side effects, but most side effects are not serious. In some countries it has been discussed whether the HPV vaccine has serious side effects and in Denmark the number of serious side effects increased after 2014, which was not observed in the other Nordic countries.


Unspecific symptoms, which may be related to HPV vaccines, are hard to diagnose specifically, has low validity in nationwide registers and may be affected by attention in the general population. In this study we will instead focus on whether HPV vaccines influence educational level and occupational status since potential serious side effects of the vaccine may have long term effects.


Register-based study combining information from Finland, Sweden and Denmark where we will include information on the birth cohorts part of the vaccine programs in the three countries.

Project period



University of Copenhagen, Karolinska Instituttet (Sweden), National Institute of Health and Welfare (Finland), Norwegian Institute of Public Health (Norway) and Statens Seruminstitut.


Kræftens Bekæmpelse

Last Updated 19.10.2023