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The aims are to understand why early life adversity, and social factors such as isolation and loneliness, are associated with diverse outcomes including mortality, physical functioning (health, functional ability), and psychological functioning (well-being, cognition), particularly in later life.

Participating Danish Studies

  • Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (LSADT)
  • Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins (MADT)
  • Middle-aged Danish Twins (MIDT)


Funding is from National Institutes of Health Grant No. R01 AG037985.


Selected publications

IGEMS: The Consortium on interplay of genes and environment across multiple studies.
Pedersen NL, Christensen K, Dahl A, Finkel D, Franz C, Gatz M, Horwitz BN, Johansson B, Johnson W, Kremen WS, Lyons MJ, Malmberg B, McGue M, Neiderhiser JM, Petersen I, & Reynolds CA. 
Twin Research and Human Genetics, 2013:16(1), 481-489. Open access 

Age-moderation of genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive functioning in mid- and late-life for specific cognitive abilities.
Pahlen S, Hamdi HR, Dahl Aslan AK, Horwitz BN, Panizzon I, Zavala C, Christensen K, Finkel D, Franz CE, Gatz M, Johnson W, Kremen WS, Krueger RF, Neiderhiser JM, Reynolds CA, Pedersen NL & McGue M. 
Intelligence, 2018:68, 70-81.

Gene–environment interplay in depressive symptoms: moderation by age, sex, and physical illness. 
Petkus AJ, Beam CR, Johnson W, Kaprio J, Korhonen T, McGue M, Neiderhiser JM, Pedersen NL, Reynolds CA, Gatz M & the IGEMS Consortium.
Psychological Medicine, 2017: 47(10), 1836-1847. Open access 

Facets of subjective health from early adulthood to old age. 
Franz CE, Finkel D, Panizzon MS, Spoon K, Christensen K, Gatz M, Kremen WS, Kruger RF, Neiderhiser JM, Reynolds CA, Pedersen NL & the IGEMS consortium.
Journal of Aging and Health, 2016: 29, 149-171. Open access

Gene-environment interplay in physical, psychological, and cognitive domains in mid to late adulthood: Is APOE a variability gene?
Reynolds CA, Gatz M, Christensen K, Christiansen L, Dalh Aslan AK, Kaprio J, Korhonen T, Kremen WS, Kruegar R, McGue M, Neiderhiser JM & Pedersen NL. 
Behavior Genetics, 2016: 46(1),4-19. Open access

GxE interaction influences trajectories of hand grip strength. 
Petersen I, Pedersen NL, Rantanen T, Kremen WS, Johnson W, Panizzon, Christiansen L, Franz CE, McGue M, Christensen K, Hamdi NR, Krueger RF & Reynolds CA. 
Behavior Genetics, 2016: 46(1)20-30. Open access

Gender differences in marital status moderation of genetic and environmental influences on subjective health.
Finkel D, Franz CE, Horwitz B, Christensen K, Gatz M, Johnson W, Kaprio J, Korhonen T, Neiderhiser J, Petersen I, Rose RJ, Silventoinen K & IGEMS Consortium. 
Behavior Genetics, 2016: 46(1), 114-123.

Consortium on Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies