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The Danish Twin Registry was established in 1954 by Professor Tage Kemp, Mogens Hauge and Bent Harvald from Institute of Human Genetics, University of Copenhagen. The purpose of the register was to elucidate the influence of inheritance and environment on the development of particular chronic diseases, and to begin with it included the birth cohorts 1870–1910.

The oldest record
After Tage Kemp's death and the appointment of Mogens Hauge and Bent Harvald as professors the Danish Twin Registry was transferred to Odense University. Mogens Hauge and Bent Harvald continued the task on updating and the general maintenance of the register, which went on to include the birth cohorts 1870-1930 (and 1931-40 for Funen).
After the death of Mogens Hauge in 1988 Niels Holm has been responsible for the maintenance and scientific use of this part of the Danish Twin Registry.

The youngest register
In 1990 was the youngest part of the register established with the collection of birth cohorts 1953-82. This work has been performed by Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Anders Green and Henning Beck-Nielsen. Later this section was updated by Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, and it includes now the cohorts up to and including 2000. Kirsten Ohm Kyvik is currently responsible for the maintenance and scientific use of this part of the register.

The middle register
In the late 1990s, the Register were completed with the birth-cohorts 1931-52. This work was conducted by Axel Skytthe and Kaare Christensen, who are also responsible for the maintenance and scientific use of this part of the DTR.

This combination makes the registry particularly useful in a research context, since it allows studies of populations over several generations. Researchers get the opportunity to examine developments that have occurred in this period. There is information about health, diseases and causes of death for a very large proportion of twins born within the individual cohorts.

DTR were in 1995 covered by the Law on Public Authority Records and is a public, partially self-funded research register with the Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern as responsible.