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The Carlsberg Project - Danish Welfare State History

Three members of the Danish Centre for Welfare Studies (DaWS) and 4 external researchers were affiliated with the project. The analysis is reported in six monographs:

  • Towards the state of social assistance (1750-1898)
    This monograph covers the first modern social policy legislation in Denmark.
  • Between discretion and rights (1898-1933)
    The second monograph covers how the differentiation of the Danish welfare State continued with the introduction of the Relief Fund Law (1907), the Act of Unemployment Insurance (1907) and the Act of Disability Insurance (1921).
  • The welfare state in the melting pot (1933-1957) 
    The third monograph covers the development from "Denmark for the people" to the implementation of the national pension and the intense discussion about the welfare state.
  • The welfare state in the days of her glory (1957-1973)
    The fourth monograph covers the period of 1957 to the landslide victory in 1973. It describes how the welfare state was unfolded during the 1960'ies. This was reflected in the social development in general and in the significant increase in public spending.
  • The welfare state in crisis (1973-1992)
    This monograph covers the period of 1973 to 1993, which was marked by a crisis of legitimacy and by economic difficulties, but also by the implementation of the last indent of the Social Reform: The Assistance Act.
  • What is the welfare state coming to (1992-2012)
    The sixth monograph illustrates how the ideology behind social policy has been undergoing major changes. Activation, sanctions, incentives, duty-and-right is very much on the agenda, it reflects a change of the classic welfare state.

The links are in Danish and the full project description can be viewed here (also in Danish)

"It is so far the most detailed survey of the relationship between the political, economic and social development in 20th century Denmark. You can easily describe it as a research leapfrog," historian Steffen Heiberg has written about the work.

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