Menu

Joint Course 2015

MA in Middle East Studies

Centre for Contemporary Middle East Studies

University of Southern Denmark

MEDITERRANEAN PERSPECTIVES - 2015

Lecturer: Associate Professor, Dr. Peter Seeberg,

Director of DJUCO (www.djuco.org)

mail: seeberg@sdu.dk, phone +45 6550 2176

Introduction

The course in Mediterranean Perspectives takes its starting point in an ongoing research project at the centre, which focuses on the development of European-Mediterranean relations and their foreign and security policy dimensions. It is furthermore the idea of the project, through the analysis of the development of European-Middle Eastern relations, to discuss the EU as foreign and security policy actor. The work applies a historical perspective looking at the development over time from the launching of the Venice Declaration in 1980 to the present, thereby examining how the political and institutional practices of the EU gradually have changed over time and how this has affected the relations between the EU and the Middle East in the period from 1980 to 2015.

The project discusses the development of European-Mediterranean relations, in the context of the official EC/EU policies and cooperation agreements from the Venice declaration, with the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) as landmark agreements; the Lisbon Treaty and the European External Action Service (EEAS) as the latest building stones. The different agreements are seen as elements in a foreign and security regime on behalf of the EU. The idea of analyzing EU policies as a regime is inspired by Roland Dannreuther, who in an article in 2007, quoting Stephen D. Krasner, suggested that EU’s greater Middle East strategy could best be defined as one of regime building, where the purpose of the regime is to “define rules, norms, principles and procedures that focus expectations regarding international behavior”. In this project the point is taken further, discussing the organizational expressions of foreign policy ambitions on behalf of the EU as a step towards developing a specific EU “agency” that would add new dimensions to the discussions about the character of the EU as to its foreign and security policy.

The course takes its point of departure in earlier attempts at discussing the EU as a foreign policy actor, which over the last decades have resulted in a huge number of different perceptions; from François Duchêne and his understanding of European civilian power domesticating the European surroundings to for instance Federica Bicchi’s concept of ideational intergovernmentalism and her understanding that the EU needs to offer a less Europe-centered contribution to Mediterranean politics. The project discusses the regionalist ambitions of the Barcelona Process, demonstrating that they never in reality were realized.

The course argues that recent EU policies can be termed pragmatic multilateralism, claiming a continuation of the pragmatic dimensions of the ENP, and that the EU through the UfM pursues a policy which neglects former ambitions of promoting democracy and human rights. The character of the UfM with its focus on selected projects in itself underlines the pragmatism. It is demonstrated how a much publicized common ownership of the UfM has been ‘overruled’ by a Europeanization process and that this also emphasizes the continuity between the ENP and the UfM. Furthermore, pragmatic elements in EU foreign policy are pointed out by describing how the cooperation on the institutional development of the UfM and its prioritized projects takes place without touching on politically sensitive issues.

It is shown that rather than the ‘what should be’ attached to the normative policies of the regionalist Barcelona process, the policies of the EMP, the ENP and the UfM have become a ‘what could be’, i.e., a pragmatic recognition of certain limits to what the EU is capable of obtaining in the MENA region. The ENP did not lead to a more active or influential role for the EU in Mediterranean and this reality has not changed with the launching of the UfM. Analyzing the institutional basis for the EU-Middle Eastern cooperation it is the ambition to discuss possible future scenarios for the EU on the international political scene. Furthermore it is the ambition to analyze the changing relations between the EU and the Middle East region in the context of the Arab revolts since early 2011.

The Mediterranean is a conflict-ridden region – in this respect it is indeed much more than a geographical space. From a historical, cultural and social perspective it is a place of contacts and relations; but also a contested place, a place of contradictions, conflicts and occasionally even war. In a sense the Mediterranean is a sea with only one shore, namely the northern, European one; home of the EU, formally the largest economic power in the world, but also a foreign policy actor, which still lacks coherence and impact. The Arab states, south and east of the Mediterranean, are partners in European-Middle Eastern cooperation agreements. They are, however, also counterparts and compared to Europe they are relatively poor and highly heterogeneous.

A recurring theme in the course will be that until the uprisings in 2011 the Arab Mediterranean states appeared as unshakeable authoritarian regimes. Regarding legitimacy they were weak states, characterized by repression and lack of political, social and economic development. Since the uprisings we have witnessed a surprising political development, most significantly in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya and Syria. In Tunisia a relatively positive situation is still developing, whereas in Egypt the unclear situation is dominated by the military. In Libya and Syria the realities are characterized by being highly problematic and unpredictable. It is impossible to foresee if a transition towards a more democratic reality will be the outcome in more than a few Arab states. However, the important thing is that the conditions for political development in the Mediterranean region seem to change.

Furthermore the role of Turkey will be discussed with a focus on Turkey’s relationship with the European Union. At present, it appears that neither is the EU eager and flexible as to offer Turkey credible membership prospects nor is Turkey maintaining the same degree of commitment to the EU as it earlier was the case. Observers of Turkish foreign policy agree that it has entered a new era of activism over the last decade. In line with its new perception of its role in the world, Turkey has increasingly asserted itself as a rising actor that is determined to make a unique contribution to regional and global affairs. In the process, Turkish foreign policy has been transformed, not only in its content, but also in the instruments for formulating and conducting a proactive foreign-policy agenda.

The policies from the EU towards the Arab Mediterranean states have until 2011 been characterized by pragmatism and depoliticization of European-Middle Eastern relations. The EU has until recently in its approach towards the MENA region avoided touching on politically sensitive issues and for pragmatic reasons supported the incumbent authoritarian Middle Eastern regimes. Behind this lay interpretations of the security environment in the Mediterranean, where common security interests between the former North African regimes and the EU constituted an important part of the background for the pragmatic approach in European foreign and security policy. With the changing political realities in North Africa this view from the north might no longer be feasible.

Aims and content

The aim of this course on Mediterranean Perspectives is that the students should be able to demonstrate an in-depth knowledge of relations between Europe and the Middle East, of current changes in the Mediterranean region and of discussions about Mediterranean identity. The course focuses on the EU as an agent in foreign policy and on the question of security in the region, on European policies of partnership and neighbourhood, on the Barcelona process and attempts to promote democracy and human rights in the Arab world and Turkey. Other aspects will be migratory movements from a Mediterranean perspective, the role of the Islamist movements, and the relations between the ruling elites and the opposition in states to the south and east of the Mediterranean.

Form of teaching

Lectures alternating with presentations from the students, workshops and individual supervision in conjunction with the writing of the synopsis. The lectures include the use of web based sources as an integrated part of the teaching. The teaching supports the humanities model for active learning and activating teaching as described in the common provisions. The lecturer informs the students about how study activities are organized at the beginning of the semester.

Examination specifications

A fixed syllabus is submitted corresponding to course topics covered by the teaching extending to 800-1000 pages.


Assessment criteria

Taking account of the form of examination and the level of the current semester, emphasis is placed on the degree to which the students’ performance lives up to the described aims and the degree to which students have a command of the general skills outlined in § 1, the focus in this subject being particularly on nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14. Grades are given in relation to the degree to which target aims are satisfied, as described in the provisions of the grading scale system.

Examination requirements

The exam is an oral synopsis exam. A synopsis is understood as a small written assignment of max. three pages forming the basis of an oral presentation and a discussion with the examiners. The synopsis must be approved by the lecturer and submitted by the end of the course at the latest. The submission of a synopsis is a requirement for the exam; however, the assessment should be based on the oral presentation alone.

Examination form

Oral synopsis exam; synopsis-length: max three pages; duration of examination:  30 minutes including moderation; no preparation; aids: all; moderator: internal; assessment: 7-grade scale.

Teaching Plan

18/08, DJUCO office, 5.00-8.00

Introduction: The teaching material. Means of communication. The cooperation with University of Jordan and the DJUCO-project.

Opening lecture: Europe, the Arab world and the invention of the Mediterranean – research, politics and cooperation

Learning activities: Presentation and lecture, brainstorming, introduction concerning the synopsis exam, discussion of preliminary ideas.

Seminars in Jordan in September at Prince Al Hussein bin Abdullah II School of International Studies at University of Jordan


14/9, Room B, 2.00-5.00

Cooperation in the Mediterranean, the European Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), and the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) – perspectives on European Mediterranean policies

Seeberg, Peter (2007) EU and the Mediterranean: Foreign Policy and Security, in Seeberg (2007, ed.), pp. 7-37.

Dannreuther, Roland (2007) Recasting the Barcelona Process: Europe and the Greater Middle East, in Seeberg (2007, ed.), pp. 38-58.

Seeberg, Peter (2007) “Unity and Diversity”, Security and Migration. The Changing European Foreign Policy and Security Agenda in the Mediterranean, in Seeberg (2007, ed.), pp. 141-173.

Seeberg, Peter (2010) Union for the Mediterranean – pragmatic multilateralism and the depoliticization of EU-Middle Eastern relations, Middle East Critique, 19 (3): 287-302.

Seeberg, Peter (2015) Bringing People Back in Politics: The Role of Civil Society, Political Parties, and Regional Organizations in a Changing Middle East, Democracy and Security, 11 (2): 98-110.

Learning activities: Lecture, class teaching, student’s presentation


15/9, Room C, 2.00-5.00

The EU as a foreign and security policy agent in the Mediterranean – history and recent developments

Hollis, Rosemary (2012) No friends of democratization: Europe’s role in the genesis of the ‘Arab Spring’, International Affairs, 88 (1): 81-94.

Seeberg, Peter (2015) The EU and the Syrian Crisis: The Use of Sanctions and the Regime's Strategy for Survival, Mediterranean Politics, 20 (1): 18-35.

Morillas, Pol (2015) From Policies to Politics: The European Union as an International Mediator in the Mediterranean, 23 PapersIEMed., 1-33.

Teti, Andrea (2015) Democracy Without Social Justice: Marginalization of Social and Economic Rights in EU Democracy Assistance Policy after the Arab Uprisings, Middle East Critique, 24 (1): 9-26.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, students-led seminar

Seminars in September/October in Denmark at Southern Denmark University


28/9, conference room 99, 10.15-14.00 (including lunch break)

The authoritarian regimes of the Middle East and the Arab uprisings. Democracy in the Middle East vs. authoritarian resilience: Theoretical discussions and policy implications

Heydemann, Steven (2007) Upgrading Authoritarianism in the Arab World, Saban Center Analysis Paper, No. 13.

Heydemann, Steven/Reinoud Leenders (2013): Authoritarian Governance in Syria and Iran, in S. Heydemann and R. Leenders (2013, eds.) Iran and Syria, Middle East Authoritarianisms. Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran (Stanford: Stanford University Press), pp. 1-16.

Barari, Hassan A. (2015) The Persistence of Autocracy: Jordan, Morocco and the Gulf, Middle East Critique, 24 (1): 99-111.

Seeberg, Peter (2015) Regime Adaptability and Political Reconfigurations following the Arab Spring: New Challenges for EU Foreign Policies toward the Mediterranean, Middle East Critique, 24 (1): 41-54.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation


29/9, conference room 99, 10.15-14.00 (including lunch break)

The EU and the Mashreq: the case of Egypt

Seeberg, Peter (2013) The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt: EU Foreign and Security Policy Challenges with a Special Focus on the Changing Political Setting in the MENA-region, European Foreign Affairs Review, 18 (3): 411–428.

Isaac, Sally Khalifa (2014) The Egyptian Transition, 2011–13: How Strategic to Europe? Middle East Policy, 21 (1): 154–165.

Elghamry, Khaled (2015) Periphery Discourse: An Alternative Media Eye on the Geographical, Social and Media Peripheries in Egypt's Spring, Mediterranean Politics, 20 (2), 255-272.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, students-led seminar


30/9, conference room 99, 10.15-14.00 (including lunch break)

The EU and the Mashreq: the case of Lebanon

Seeberg, Peter (2010) The EU as a realist actor in normative clothes: EU democracy promotion in Lebanon and the European Neighbourhood Policy, Democratization, 16 (1): 81-99.

Sater, James (2013) Migrant Workers, Labor Rights, and Governance in Middle Income Countries: The Case of Migrant Domestic Workers in Lebanon, in Seeberg & Eyadat (2013, eds.), pp. 115-136.

Fakhoury, Tamirace (2014) The EU and Lebanon in the Wake of the Arab Uprisings, Middle East Policy, 21 (1): 133–143.

Meier, Daniel (2015) Popular Mobilizations in Lebanon: From Anti-System to Sectarian Claims, Democracy and Security, 11 (2): 176-189.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, presentation: synopsis exam; oral mid-evaluation


1/10, conference room 99, 10.15-14.00 (including lunch break)

The EU and the Mashreq: Jordan

Eyadat, Zaid (2013) Balancing Security and Human Rights: the Case of Female Migrant Workers in Jordan, in Seeberg & Eyadat (2013, eds.), pp. 115-136.

Ryan, Curtis R. (2014) Jordanian Foreign Policy and the Arab Spring, Middle East Policy, 21 (1): 144–153.

Beck, Martin & Simone Hüser (2015) Jordan and the ‘Arab Spring’: No Challenge, No Change? Middle East Critique, 24 (1): 83-98.

Yom, Sean L. (2015) The New Landscape of Jordanian Politics: Social Opposition, Fiscal Crisis, and the Arab Spring, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42 (3): 284-300.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, students-led seminar, brainstorm: ideas for synopsis


5/10, conference room 99, 10.15-14.00 (including lunch break)

The EU and the Maghreb: Morocco and Algeria

García, Raquel Ojeda & Ángela Suárez Collado (2015) The Project of Advanced Regionalisation in Morocco: Analysis of a Lampedusian Reform, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42 (1): 46-58.

Kohstall, Florian (2015) From Reform to Resistance: Universities and Student Mobilisation in Egypt and Morocco before and after the Arab Uprisings, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42 (1): 59-73.

Bergh, Sylvia I. & Daniele Rossi-Doria (2015) Plus ça Change? Observing the Dynamics of Morocco's ‘Arab Spring’ in the High Atlas, Mediterranean Politics, 20 (2): 198-216.

Davis, Muriam Haleh & Thomas Serres (2013) Political Contestation in Algeria: Between Postcolonial Legacies and the Arab Spring, Middle East Critique, 22 (2): 99-112.

Lefèvre, Raphaël (2015) A new chapter in relations between Algeria and France?, The Journal of North African Studies, 20 (3): 315-318.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, supervision related to synopsis


6/10, conference room 99, 10.15-14.00 (including lunch break)

The EU and the Maghreb: Tunisia and Libya

Cavatorta, Francesco & Rikke Haugbølle (2012) The End of Authoritarian Rule and the Mythology of Tunisia under Ben Ali, Mediterranean Politics, 17 (2): 179-197.

Donker, Teije Hidde (2013) Re-emerging Islamism in Tunisia: Repositioning Religion in Politics and Society, Mediterranean Politics, 18 (2): 207-224.

Seeberg, Peter (2014) EU Strategic Interests in Post-Qadhafi Libya: Perspectives for Cooperation, Middle East Policy, 21 (1): 122-132.

Mattes, Hanspeter (2014) Rebuilding the National-Security Forces In Libya, Middle East Policy, 21 (2): 85–99.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, workshop, supervision related to synopsis


7/10, conference room 99, 10.15-14.00 (including lunch break)

Migration, security and Mediterranean cooperation

Lutterbeck, Derek (2007) Policing the EU’s Mediterranean Borders: The Human Security Implications, in Seeberg (ed. 2007), pp. 174-189.

Di Peri, Rosita (2013) Perceiving Democracy in Migration: The Case of Moroccans in Piemonte, in Seeberg & Eyadat (2013, eds.), pp. 65-94.

Lutterbeck, Derek (2013) Across the Desert, Across the Sea: Migrant Smuggling into and from Libya, in Seeberg & Eyadat (2013, eds.), pp. 137-166.

Phöstl (2013) Diasporas as Political Actors: The Case of the Amazigh Diaspora, in Seeberg & Eyadat (2013, eds.), pp. 95-114.

Seeberg, Peter (2013) Migration into and from Syria, in Seeberg & Eyadat (2013, eds.), pp. 167-194.

Supplementary reading: Fargues, Philippe (2013; ed.) EU Neighbourhood Migration Report 2013, MPC, Florence:

http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/27394/MPC_NeighMigration.pdf?sequence=5.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, supervision related to synopsis


Seminars in Jordan in November at Prince Al Hussein bin Abdullah II School of International Studies at University of Jordan


TBA

Migration and mobility – towards a new migration regime

Peter Seeberg (2013): The Arab Uprisings and the EU's Migration Policies – the Cases of Egypt, Libya, and Syria, Democracy and Security, 9 (1-2): 157-176.

Seeberg, Peter (2014) Mobility Partnerships and the EU: Where are we regarding implementation and what will be the consequences? Part I & II, Odense: Danish Resource Center on the Modern Middle East.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, supervision related to synopsis


TBA

Turkey and the EU – the bumpy road towards membership of the EU

Oguzlu, H. Tarik (2012) Turkey and the European Union: Europeanization Without Membership, Turkish Studies, 13 (2): 229-243.

Barrinha, André (2014) The Ambitious Insulator: Revisiting Turkey's Position in Regional Security Complex Theory, Mediterranean Politics, 19 (2): 165-182.

Öniş, Ziya (2014) Turkey and the Arab Revolutions: Boundaries of Regional Power Influence in a Turbulent Middle East, Mediterranean Politics, 19 (2): 203-219.

Günay, Defne (2014) Europeanization of State Capacity and Foreign Policy: Turkey in the Middle East, Mediterranean Politics, 19 (2): 220-237.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, supervision related to synopsis, written evaluation


TBA

Turkey and the new foreign policy challenges

Robins, Philip (2013) Turkey’s ‘double gravity’ predicament: the foreign policy of a newly activist power. International Affairs 89 (2): 381–397.

Wood, Steve (2013) Turkey and EUrope: Identity and Other Crises, Turkish Studies, 14 (2): 272-291.

Saraçoğlu, Cenk & Özhan Demirkol (2015) Nationalism and Foreign Policy Discourse in Turkey Under the AKP Rule: Geography, History and National Identity, British Journal of

Middle Eastern Studies, 42 (3): 301-319.

Özcan, Mesut, Talha Köse & Ekrem Karakoç (2015) Assessments of Turkish Foreign Policy in the Middle East During the Arab Uprisings, Turkish Studies, 16 (2): 195-218.

Learning activities: Lecture, discussions, student’s presentation, supervision related to synopsis



TBA

Recent developments. Conclusions & closing remarks. Deadline for the synopsis. Exam etc.

Learning activities: Discussions, supervision related to synopsis


Material

Books/Special Issues/Themed Sections:

Seeberg, Peter & Zaid Eyadat (2015, eds.) Democracy and Security, Special Issue: Bringing People Back In Politics: The Role of Civil Society, Organizations, and Political Parties in a Post–Arab Spring Context, 11 (2)

Available via links in the teaching plan, restricted access

Seeberg, Peter (2015, ed.) Middle East Critique, Special Issue: The EU and the Post-Arab Spring, 24 (1)

Available via links in the teaching plan, restricted access

Seeberg, Peter (2014, ed.) Middle East Policy, Themed Section: The EU and the Region, 21 (1)

Available via links in the teaching plan, restricted access

Seeberg, Peter & Zaid Eyadat (2013, eds.) Migration, Security, and Citizenship in the Middle East: New Perspectives (New York: Palgrave).

Can be bought at the university bookshop, also available as e-book at the library

Seeberg, Peter (2007, ed.) EU and the Mediterranean. Foreign Policy and Security (Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark).

Can be bought at the university bookshop

Articles etc.

Available via links in the teaching plan, restricted access

Barari, Hassan A. (2015) The Persistence of Autocracy: Jordan, Morocco and the Gulf, Middle East Critique, 24 (1): 99-111.

Barrinha, André (2014) The Ambitious Insulator: Revisiting Turkey's Position in Regional Security Complex Theory, Mediterranean Politics, 19 (2): 165-182.

Beck, Martin & Simone Hüser (2015) Jordan and the ‘Arab Spring’: No Challenge, No Change? Middle East Critique, 24 (1): 83-98.

Bergh, Sylvia I. & Daniele Rossi-Doria (2015) Plus ça Change? Observing the Dynamics of Morocco's ‘Arab Spring’ in the High Atlas, Mediterranean Politics, 20 (2): 198-216.

Cavatorta, Francesco & Haugbølle, Rikke (2012) The End of Authoritarian Rule and the Mythology of Tunisia under Ben Ali, Mediterranean Politics, 17 (2): 179-197.

Davis, Muriam Haleh & Thomas Serres (2013) Political Contestation in Algeria: Between Postcolonial Legacies and the Arab Spring, Middle East Critique, 22 (2): 99-112

Donker, Teije Hidde (2013) Re-emerging Islamism in Tunisia: Repositioning Religion in Politics and Society, Mediterranean Politics, 18 (2): 207-224.

Elghamry, Khaled (2015) Periphery Discourse: An Alternative Media Eye on the Geographical, Social and Media Peripheries in Egypt's Spring, Mediterranean Politics, 20 (2), 255-272.

García, Raquel Ojeda & Ángela Suárez Collado (2015) The Project of Advanced Regionalisation in Morocco: Analysis of a Lampedusian Reform, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42 (1): 46-58.

Günay, Defne (2014) Europeanization of State Capacity and Foreign Policy: Turkey in the Middle East, Mediterranean Politics, 19 (2): 220-237.

Heydemann, Steven (2007) Upgrading Authoritarianism in the Arab World, Saban Center Analysis Paper, No. 13.

Heydemann, Steven & Leenders, Reinoud (2013) Authoritarian Governance in Syria and Iran, in S. Heydemann and R. Leenders (Eds.) Iran and Syria, Middle East Authoritarianisms. Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran (Stanford: Stanford University Press), pp. 1-16.

Hollis, Rosemary (2012) No friends of democratization: Europe’s role in the genesis of the ‘Arab Spring’, International Affairs, 88 (1): 81-94.

Isaac, Sally Khalifa (2014) The Egyptian Transition, 2011–13: How Strategic to Europe? Middle East Policy, 21 (1): 154–165.

Kohstall, Florian (2015) From Reform to Resistance: Universities and Student Mobilisation in Egypt and Morocco before and after the Arab Uprisings, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42 (1): 59-73.

Lefèvre, Raphaël (2015) A new chapter in relations between Algeria and France?, The Journal of North African Studies, 20 (3): 315-318.

Mattes, Hanspeter (2014) Rebuilding the National-Security Forces In Libya, Middle East Policy, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 85–99.

Meier, Daniel (2015) Popular Mobilizations in Lebanon: From Anti-System to Sectarian Claims, Democracy and Security, 11 (2): 176-189.

Morillas, Pol (2015) From Policies to Politics: The European Union as an International Mediator in the Mediterranean, 23 PapersIEMed., 1-33.

Oguzlu, H. Tarik (2012) Turkey and the European Union: Europeanization Without Membership, Turkish Studies, 13 (2): 229-243.

Robins, Philip 2013: Turkey’s ‘double gravity’ predicament: the foreign policy of a newly activist power. International Affairs 89: 2 (2013) 381–397.

Saraçoğlu, Cenk & Özhan Demirkol (2015) Nationalism and Foreign Policy Discourse in Turkey Under the AKP Rule: Geography, History and National Identity, British Journal of

Middle Eastern Studies, 42 (3): 301-319.

Seeberg, Peter (2010) The EU as a realist actor in normative clothes: EU democracy promotion in Lebanon and the European Neighbourhood Policy, in Pace & Seeberg (2010), pp. 81-99.

Seeberg, Peter (2010) Union for the Mediterranean – pragmatic multilateralism and the depoliticization of EU-Middle Eastern relations, Middle East Critique, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 287-302.

Seeberg, Peter (2013): The Arab Uprisings and the EU's Migration Policies – the Cases of Egypt, Libya, and Syria, Democracy and Security, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, pp. 157-176.

Seeberg, Peter (2013) The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt: EU Foreign and Security Policy Challenges with a Special Focus on the Changing Political Setting in the MENA-region, European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 411–428.

Seeberg, Peter (2014) Mobility Partnerships and the EU: Where are we regarding implementation and what will be the consequences? Part I & II, Odense: Danish Resource Center on the Modern Middle East.

Seeberg, Peter (2015) Regime Adaptability and Political Reconfigurations following the Arab Spring: New Challenges for EU Foreign Policies toward the Mediterranean, Middle East Critique, 24 (1): 41-54.

Seeberg, Peter (2015) The EU and the Syrian Crisis: The Use of Sanctions and the Regime's Strategy for Survival, Mediterranean Politics, 20 (1): 18-35.

Seeberg, Peter (2015) Bringing People Back in Politics: The Role of Civil Society, Political Parties, and Regional Organizations in a Changing Middle East, Democracy and Security, 11 (2): 98-110.

Teti, Andrea (2015) Democracy Without Social Justice: Marginalization of Social and Economic Rights in EU Democracy Assistance Policy after the Arab Uprisings, Middle East Critique, 24 (1): 9-26.

Wood, Steve (2013) Turkey and EUrope: Identity and Other Crises, Turkish Studies, 14 (2): 272-291.

Yom, Sean L. (2015) The New Landscape of Jordanian Politics: Social Opposition, Fiscal Crisis, and the Arab Spring, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42 (3): 284-300.

Öniş, Ziya (2014) Turkey and the Arab Revolutions: Boundaries of Regional Power Influence in a Turbulent Middle East, Mediterranean Politics, 19 (2): 203-219.

Electronic resources

Relevant Homepages on Euro-Mediterranean Cooperation

Council of the European Union
The ministers of the Member States meet within the Council of the European Union. Depending on the issue on the agenda, each country will be represented by the minister responsible for that subject (foreign affairs, finance, social affairs, transport, agriculture, etc.). The Council is thus the main decision-making body of the European Union.
Main site: http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/council-eu/index_en.htm

EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
CSDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU and is the domain of EU policy covering defence and military aspects. CSDP aims to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities in conflict prevention and crisis management.
Main site: http://eeas.europa.eu/cfsp/index_en.htm

European Commission
The European Commission is the EU's executive body. It represents and upholds the interests of Europe as a whole. It drafts proposals for new European laws, manages the day-to-day business of implementing EU policies and the spending of EU funds. The Commission also makes sure that everyone abides by the European treaties and laws.
Main Site: www.ec.europa.eu

European Union External Action
EU’s foreign policy which is enhanced by the creation of the European External Action Service.
Main Site: www.eeas.europa.eu

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)
ENP offers EU neighbours a privileged relationship, building upon a mutual commitment to common values (democracy and human rights, rule of law, good governance, market economy principles and sustainable development). The objective of ENP is to avoid the emergence of new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and its neighbours and instead strengthening the prosperity, stability and security of all.
Main Site: www.ec.europa.eu

Treaty of Lisbon - Taking Europe into the 21st Century
The Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1st of December 2009. The treaty provides the EU with modern institutions and optimised working methods to tackle both efficiently and effectively the challenges of today's world..
Main Site: www.europa.eu

Union for the Mediterranean

The Union for the Mediterranean was created by 43 Euro-Mediterranean Heads of State and Government in Paris on 13 July 2008. The Statutes of the Secretariat were adopted on the 3 March 2010 by the Senior Officials of the Member States of the UfM. A headquarters agreement was concluded between the UfMS and the Government of Spain on 4 May 2010.

http://www.ufmsecretariat.org/en/

Relevant Research Centers, Think Tanks and Networks related to Euro-Mediterranean Cooperation

Anna Lindh Foundation for the Dialogue between Cultures
The Anna Lindh Foundation is an organization shared by the 43 countries of the Union for the Mediterranean. It aims to bring people together to improve mutual respect between cultures and to support civil society working for a common future of the region.
Main Site: www.euromedalex.org

Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM)

Located at the European University Institute, the Migration Policy Centre (MPC) conducts field work as well as archival research, both of which are scientifically robust and policy-relevant at European level and also globally, targeting policy-makers as well as politicians. This research provides tools for addressing migration challenges, by producing policy-oriented research on aspects of migration, asylum and mobility in Europe and in countries located along migration routes to Europe.

Main site: http://www.migrationpolicycentre.eu/

Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS)
CEPS is a policy think tank in Brussels, providing research and activities on economic and international policy matters.
Main Site: www.ceps.be

European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR)
ECFR is a pan-European think tank. ECFR’s objective is to conduct research and promote informed debate across Europe on the development of coherent and effective European values based foreign policy.
Main Site: www.ecfr.eu

European Institute for Research on Mediterranean and Euro-Arab Cooperation (MEDEA) 
MEDEA’s role is to strengthening cooperation with EU’s neighbours, and more specifically with those of the South and the Arab-Muslim world.
Main Site: www.medea.be


European Policy Institutes Network (EPIN) 
EPIN is a network of think tanks and policy institutes focusing on current EU and European political and policy debates. EPIN aims to contribute to the debate on the future of Europe through expert analysis and commentary and by providing easy access to understanding the different national debates.
Main Site: www.epin.org

Euro-Mediterranean Study Commission (EuroMeSCo)
EuroMeSCo is concerned with creating lasting cooperative professional relationships with similar non-governmental and independent organizations. It seeks to construct relationships between Europe, the Maghreb and the Mashreq on a North-South and South-South basis, in order to widen the forum for debate on matters of mutual concern. Such issues are related to the EMP and the ENP, and the network provides a forum for the debate of essential matters that might otherwise prove to be sensitive issues for governments within the EMP.
Main Site: www.euromesco.net

Forum EuroMéditerranéen des Instituts de Sciences Èconomiques (FEMISE)
The FEMISE Association is a Euro-Mediterranean network. The network present economic and social research and represent the two sides of the Mediterranean.
Main Site: www.femise.org

FRIDE - A European Think Tank for Global Action
FRIDE is a think tank based in Madrid that aims to provide innovative thinking on Europe’s role in the international arena.
Main Site: www.fride.org

Institut Europeau de la Mediterrània (IEMed)
IEMed is a think tank specialised in Euro-Mediterranean relations and an actor in the dialogue between the EU and the other Mediterranean countries. It describes itself as a Mediterranean lobby close to institutions and public opinion.
Main Site: http://www.iemed.org

Institute for Palestine Studies (IPS)
IPS is an institute devoted to research, analysis, and publication on Palestinian affairs and the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Main Site: www.palestine-studies.org


International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Established in 1951, IOM is the leading inter-governmental organization in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners. With 151 member states, a further 12 states holding observer status and offices in over 100 countries, IOM is dedicated to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all. It does so by providing services and advice to governments and migrants.

Main Site: http://www.iom.int

European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS)
EUISS is an agency of the European Union, operating under the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). Its goals are to find a common security culture for the EU, to help develop and project the CFSP, and to enrich Europe’s strategic debate.
Main Site: www.iss.europa.eu

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA)
IDEA is an intergovernmental organisation that supports sustainable democracy worldwide. Its mission is to support sustainable democratic change by providing comparative knowledge, and assisting in democratic reform, and influencing policies and politics.
Main Site: www.idea.int


Relevant Journals and Periodicals on Euro-Mediterranean Cooperation

British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, is a refereed, peer-reviewed academic journal published for the British Society for Middle Eastern Studies (BRISMES). The editors aim to maintain a balance in the journal's coverage between the modern social sciences and the more traditional disciplines associated with Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, is an interdisciplinary journal on Asia, Africa and the Near and Middle East. It carries coverage of the languages, cultures and civilisations of these regions from ancient times to the present. 

Main Site: www.journals.cambridge.org

Cambridge Review of International Affairs, publishes peer-reviewed scholarship on international affairs, particularly in the fields of international relations, international law and international political economy. It is committed to diversity of approach and method and encourages the submission of multi- and inter-disciplinary academic contributions from academics and policymakers.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Democratization, is a peer-reviewed journal aiming to promote a better understanding of democratisation and to encourage debate on the many aspects of democratisation that are of interest to policy-makers, administrators and journalists, aid and development personnel, as well as to all those involved in education.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

European Foreign Affairs Review, focuses on the political, legal and economic aspects of the EU’s external relations and analyses foreign affairs issues which are of relevance to the European Union and its member states on the one hand and its international partners on the other.
Main Site: www.kluwerlawonline.com

Foreign Affairs, is a forum for discussion of American foreign policy and international affairs. It is published by the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), a non-profit and nonpartisan membership organisation dedicated to improving the understanding of U.S. foreign policy and international affairs through the free exchange of ideas.
Main Site: www.foreignaffairs.com

Geopolitics, is a peer-reviewed journal seeking to explore the theoretical implications of contemporary geopolitics and geopolitical change with particular reference to territorial problems and issues of state sovereignty.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Government and Opposition, is an international journal of comparative politics. Among other things it focuses on developments in the theory and practice of democracy, the evolution of political parties, and worldwide politics - including the politics of the European Union.
Main Site: www.wiley.com

International Journal of Middle East Studies, publishes research on politics, society and culture in the Middle East from the seventh century to the present day. The journal also covers Spain, south-east Europe, and parts of Africa, South Asia, and the former Soviet Union for subjects of relevance to Middle Eastern civilization.
Main Site: www.journals.cambridge.org

IPRIS Maghreb Bulletin, is a monthly publication by The Portuguese Institute of International Relations and Security (IPRIS). Featuring exclusively the five countries of the Greater Arab Maghreb, i.e. Mauritania, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya, it provides analyses on issues pertaining to political, economic, social, and cultural dynamics in the Maghreb, regional developments in the Greater Maghreb area, and the role of the five countries in the international system.
Main Site: www.ipris.org

Journal of Common Market Studies (JCMS), publishes articles on the latest European Integration issues. It is committed to deepening the theoretical understanding of European integration and aims to achieve a disciplinary balance between political science, economics and international relations, including the various sub disciplines such as international political economy.
Main Site: www.wiley.com

Journal of Modern African Studies, offers a quarterly survey of developments in modern African politics and society. Its main emphasis is on current issues in African politics, economies, societies and international relations.
Main Site: www.journals.cambridge.org

Journal of North African Studies, is a peer-reviewed journal. Its content covers both country-based and regional themes which range from historical topics to sociological, anthropological, economic, diplomatic and other issues.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Journal of Palestine Studies, is a journal devoted exclusively to Palestinian affairs and the Arab-Israeli conflict. It brings timely and comprehensive information on the region's political, religious, and cultural concerns.
Main Site: www.palestine-studies.org

Mediterranean Politics, is an academic journal focusing on the politics, international relations and political economy of the entire Mediterranean area. It gives extensive attention to the expanding relationships between Europe and its southern neighbours, including the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Middle East Critique, promotes an academic and critical examination of the history and contemporary political, social, economic and cultural aspects of Middle Eastern countries.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Middle East Economic Digest, is a weekly magazine providing business news from the Middle East.
Main Site: www.meed.com   

Middle East Journal, provides research and analysis, as well as source material, on the area from Morocco to Pakistan and including Central Asia. It provides the background necessary for an understanding and appreciation of the region's political and economic development, cultural heritage, ethnic and religious diversity.
Main Site: www.mei.edu

Middle East Report, provides news and perspectives about the Middle East not available from mainstream news sources. The magazine has developed a reputation for independent analysis of events and developments in the Middle East. 

Main Site: www.merip.org              

Middle East Policy, provides a forum for viewpoints on recent developments that affect the US Middle East Policy. The Middle East Policy Council is an independent, non-profit, non-partisan educational organisation. Its mission is to foster public discussion of the political, economic, cultural, and security issues that affect the policies of the United States in the Middle East.
Main Site: http://www.mepc.org/journal  

New African, is a monthly magazine dealing with contemporary issues on the continent.
Main Site: www.africasia.com

Parliamentary Affairs, is a peer-reviewed academic quarterly covering all the aspects of government and politics directly or indirectly connected with parliament and parliamentary systems in Britain and throughout the world.
Main Site: www.pa.oxfordjournals.org

Review of International Studies, publishes a significant number of research articles, review articles which survey new contributions to the field, a forum section to accommodate debates and replies, and occasional interviews with leading scholars.
Main Site: www.journals.cambridge.org

Turkish Studies. Turkey is a country whose importance is rapidly growing in international affairs. A rapidly developing democratic state with a strong economy, complex society, active party system, and powerful armed forces, Turkey is playing an increasingly critical role in Europe, the Middle East, and the Caucasus.  

Given Turkey’s significance and the great interest in studying its history, politics, and foreign policy, Turkish Studies presents a forum for scholarly discussion on these topics and more.

Main cite: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ftur20

To give you the best possible experience, this site uses cookies  Read more about cookies

Accept cookies