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Ahmed Ibrahim


Cancer of the uterine cervix is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women worldwide. Approximately 1.4 million women around the globe are living with cervical cancer. It is the second most common cancer among women, with a particularly high incidence in sub-Saharian Africa.

Cervical cancer is preventable through appropriate screening practices. Screening programmes with use of Pap smear have been implemented in many countries around the world and have made a significant contribution in the reduction of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. However, in many countries, particularly developing countries, screening services are not available. Vaccination against HPV is a new method of prevention of cervical cancer, but vaccines are limited to certain types of HPV. A new method of screening which is simple, easy and cheap, called visual screening by use of acetic acid (VIA), has been developed. It is being used in many developing countries for detection of cervical cancer in lower resources settings.

Study objectives

  1. To provide evidence-based epidemiological data about Human Papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer in Khartoum Sate, Sudan.
  2. To determine the prevalence of HPV infection, precancerous lesions and cervical cancer among women in the general population in Khartoum state.
  3. To identify the risk factors associated with HPV infection, precancerous lesions and cervical cancer in the general population in Khartoum state.
  4. To determine suitability, feasibility, accessibility, acceptability and safety of cervical cancer prevention and screening methods approach in the existing healthcare setting in Khartoum State.


  1. Study design: Cross-sectional population-based HPV and cervical cancer screening survey.
  2. Target population: women aged 25-49 years who are living in Khartoum state.
  3. Data collection: Structured interviews about socio-economic characteristics, reproductive history, and other risk factors. Cervical cancer screening with use of Visual Inspection with use of Acetic Acid (VIA) HC2 test for Human Papillomavirus. In-depth interviews to get a detailed description of women’s notion of cervical cancer and how they perceive the screening activities offered.


One manuscript has been submitted on the pilot study concerning the feasibility of screening in Khartoum. The second one is under preparation on the risk factors of cervical cancer in Khartoum.

Supervisors: Arja R Aro, SDU; Vibeke Rasch, University of Copenhagen, Eero Pukkala, Finnish Cancer Registry

Time frame: 1 August 2008 - 31 July 2011

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Last Updated 20.10.2023