Korstog i senmiddelalderen.
Fighting for the faith during Renaissance and Reformation.
Late medieval and early modern crusading, 1400-1650
November 12th - 13th 2007
Lecture-hall O100 at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense
Organized by The Nordic Centre for Medieval Studies and The Medieval Centre, University of Southern Denmark. Odense.
The symposium is open to all. For participation, please register before 12 October 2007 by sending an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please indicate when registering whether you wish to participate in the seminar lunch (150 Dkr. or 20 Euros pr. day). For further information, contact Dr. Janus Møller Jensen, email@example.com.
The symposium will investigate the role of crusading and crusade ideology in the late medieval and early modern period. It has become apparent that although the religious and political situation made a common Christian crusade against the enemies of Christendom - and a recovery of the <place w:st=on>Holy Land</place> - more and more unlikely, the crusade and its ideals continued to have a profound influence in the fifteenth century. This influence does not seem to have diminished with the Reformation and did indeed continue on both sides of the confessional divide in sixteenth century Europe. Crusading thus had a tremendous impact on religious and political life in Europe, continuing at least until the seventeenth century. Crusade ideology permeated society. It can almost be equalled to a modern multi-media show: it was preached, processions were performed, it was part of the daily liturgy, prayers were said during mass, crusade masses were performed, it was painted on church walls, present in art, and church-bells were rung to remind people of the danger of the Turks. Crusade literature was being read and created, prophecies and astrological charts consulted; old legends, medieval chronicles, classical scholarship were being rediscovered and reinvented by renaissance humanists in support of the efforts to launch crusades in their own day; and all this was forwarded by the newly invented printing press. Crusades were for everybody and directed against all enemies of the faith, against heretics within Christendom, against heathens and infidels, Saracens in in Spain and the schismatic Russians in the north-east. But the greatest danger, especially after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, came from the Turks, who during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries pushed into central Europe, reaching as far as Vienna in 1529. Although Lutheran reformers argued forcefully against the crusade indulgence from 1517, they simultaneously strongly advocated a war against the Turks. Despite being conducted by the secular authority, this war against the Turks retained a number of the essential characteristics of the medieval crusade ideology: it was considered God’s war, and the soldiers were seen as performing the will of God and would achieve martyrdom as their reward for fighting for the true faith. Crusade history and the example set by the crusaders could be used to inflame young Protestants to fight in the wars of religion of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. And the Protestant church was to deliver the spiritual artillery against the enemies of both state and Christendom. At least to some contemporaries the continuity from the medieval crusades was obvious, raising interesting perspectives for understanding the long afterlife of the crusades also addressed at this symposium.
Monday 12 November
Janus Møller Jensen, University of Southern Denmark
10.00-10.40: From Mobilisation to Memory: Crusading 1450-1650
Norman Housley, University of Leicester
10.40-11.20: Jerusalem in the Papal Letters of the 15th century: Goal, Justification or an Instrument of Enlistment for the Crusading plans?
Benjamin Weber, Université de Toulouse – Le Mirail
11.30-12.10: Hospitaller Writings on the Fight against the Turk: Selling the Crusades to Western Europe
Theresa M. Vann, Hill Museum & Manuscript Library
13.20-14.00: The Importance of the Byzantine Qur’an Translations for the Anti-Islamic Polemics
Christian Høgel, University of Southern Denmark
14.00-14.40:Byzantine Expatriate Diplomats in the Planning of Crusades towards the End of the Fifteenth Century
John H. Lind, University of Southern Denmark
15.40-16.20: Crusade against Christian Neighbours. Boniface IX’s Crusading Bull of 1401 to Queen Margaret I of the Kalmar Union
Kurt Villads Jensen, University of Southern Denmark
16.20-17.00: Hussites’ View of Crusading and Their Idea of Holy War
Pavel Soukup, Charles University in Prague
17.00-17.30: General discussion
Tuesday 13 November
09.00-09.40: The Shield of theKalmar Union to the East. Sweden and the Crusade against the Russians, 1495-1497
Tore Nyberg, University of Southern Denmark
09.40-10.20: Les Rois Catholiques et la Guerre de Grenade d’après le témoignage d’Alonso de Palencia
Daniel Baloup, Université de Toulouse – Le Mirail
10.40-11.20: Crusading and Astrological Tracts
Claudius Sieber-Lehmann, University of Basel
13.10-14.00: The Ottomans and the Earlier Tudors (1485-1558)
Greg O’Malley, Independent scholar
14.00-14.40: Protestant Crusading: Christian III of Denmark
Janus Møller Jensen, University of Denmark
15.10-16.00: ”The Ultimate Perversion” – the End of the Crusader State in Preussia (the Treaty of Kraków 1525)
Darius von Guttner Sporzinsky, University of Melbourne
16.00-16.40: A Lutheran Appropriation of the First Crusade: The Danish Historian Anders Sørensen Vedel’s Apology for Editing Robert the Monk
Karen Skovgaard-Petersen, The Royal Library in Copenhagen