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Joint Course 2013

MA in Middle East Studies

Center for Contemporary Middle East Studies

University of Southern Denmark

Mediterranean perspectives - 2013

Lecturers: 

Associate Professor, Ph.D., Peter Seeberg, Director of Studies (seeberg@sdu.dk), phone 65502176

Associate Professor, Ph.D., Mehmed Ümit Necef (Necef@sdu.dk), phone 65502186

Introduction

The Mediterranean is a conflict-ridden region it is a place of contacts and relations; but also a contested place, a place of contradictions, conflicts and occasionally even war. In a sense the Mediterranean is a sea with only one shore, namely the northern, European one; home of the EU, formally the largest economic power in the world, but also a foreign policy actor, which still lacks coherence and impact. The Arab world, south and east of the Mediterranean, is a partner in European-Middle Eastern cooperation agreements. It is, however, also a counterpart, constituted, compared to Europe, by poor, heterogeneous states.

Until the revolts in 2011-12 the Arab Mediterranean states appeared as unshakeable; regarding legitimacy they were weak states and authoritarian regimes, characterized by repression and lack of political, social and economic development. Since the uprisings we have witnessed a surprising political development, most significantly in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya, where the old dictators have been replaced by new, democratically elected leaders , in Egypt in an unclear situation dominated by the military. Still it is impossible to predict if a transition towards a more democratic reality will be the outcome in more than a few Arab states. However, the important thing is that the conditions for political development in the Mediterranean region seem to be changed.

Furthermore the role of Turkey will be discussed with a focus on Turkeytaking the latest Turkish parliamentary elections in June 2011 as a point of departure. Apparently Turkey(AKP) rule, yet Turkish rulers will increasingly find it difficult to put EU membership issue at the center of this process. At present, it appears that neither is the EU eager and flexible as to offer Turkey credible membership prospects nor is Turkey

Observers of Turkish foreign policy agree that it has entered a new era of activism over the last decade. In line with its new perception of its role in the world, Turkey has increasingly asserted itself as a rising actor that is determined to make a unique contribution to regional and global affairs. In the process, Turkish foreign policy has been transformed, not only in its content, but also in the instruments and mechanisms for formulating and conducting a proactive foreign-policy agenda.

The policies from the EU towards the Arab Mediterranean states have until 2011 been characterized by pragmatism and depoliticization of European-Middle Eastern relations. The EU has until recently in its approach towards the MENA region avoided touching on politically sensitive issues and for pragmatic reasons supported the incumbent authoritarian Middle Eastern regimes. Behind this lay interpretations of the security environment in the Mediterranean, where common security interests between the former North African regimes and the EU constituted an important part of the background for the pragmatic approach in European foreign and security policy. With the changing political realities in North Africa this view from the north is no longer feasible. The EU will have to get accustomed to more binding forms of political cooperation with Islamist parties and movements, which now tend to dominate the political scene in North Africa.

Aims and content

The aim of this course on Mediterranean Perspectives is that the students should be able to demonstrate an in-depth knowledge of relations between Europe and the Middle East, of current changes in the Mediterranean region and of discussions about Mediterranean identity. The course focuses on the EU as an agent in foreign policy and on the question of security in the region, on European policies of partnership and neighbourhood, on the Barcelona process and attempts to promote democracy and human rights in the Arab world and Turkey. Other aspects will be migratory movements from a Mediterranean perspective, the role of the Islamist movements, and the relations between the ruling elites and the opposition in states to the south and east of the Mediterranean.

Form of teaching

Lectures alternating with presentations from the students and workshops. Attempts are made to include the use of web-based sources as an integrated part of the teaching.

Examination specifications

A fixed syllabus is submitted corresponding to subject matter covered by the teaching and extending to about 800 to 1000 pages.

Assessment criteria

Taking account of the form of examination and the level of the current semester, emphasis is placed on the degree to which the students

Examination requirements

The exam is an oral synopsis exam. A synopsis is understood as a minimum of two pages forming the basis of an oral presentation and a discussion with the examiners. The synopsis must be approved by the lecturer and submitted by the end of the course at the latest.

Examination form

Oral synopsis exam; synopsis-length: minimum 2 pages; duration of examination: 30 minutes including moderation; no preparation; aids: all; moderator: internal; assessment: 7-grade scale.

Teaching Plan

20/8, DJUCO-office

Introduction: The teaching material. Means of communication. The cooperation with University of Jordan etc.

 

19/9, University of Jordan

Opening lecture: Europe, the Arab world and the invention of the Mediterranean . Cooperation in the Mediterranean, the European Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) and the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)

Khader, Bichara (2013) The European Union and the Arab World: from the Rome Treaty to the Arab Spring, IEMed/EuroMeSCo, Working Paper, No. 17, pp. 1-46.

Seeberg, Peter (2007) EU and the Mediterranean: Foreign Policy and Security, in Seeberg, Peter (ed., 2007). EU and the Mediterranean. Foreign Policy and Security. Odense, University Press of Southern Denmark pp. 7-37

Dannreuther, Roland (2007) Recasting the Barcelona Process: Europe and the Greater Middle East, in Seeberg (2007), pp. 38-58.

Seeberg, Peter (2007) (2007), pp. 141-173.

 

22/9, University of Jordan

The EU as a foreign and security policy agent in the Mediterranean

Seeberg, Peter (2010) Union for the Mediterranean

of EU-Middle Eastern Relations, Middle East Critique, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 287-302.

Hollis, Rosemary (2012) No friends of democratization: EuropeInternational Affairs, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 81-94.

Kausch, Kristina (2013) The End of the (Southern) Neighbourhood, IEMed/EuroMeSCo, No. 18, pp. 1-40.

Seeberg, Peter (2009) The EU as a realist actor in normative clothes: EU democracy promotion in

Lebanon and the European Neighbourhood Policy, Democratization, pp. 81-99.

 

30/9, conference room, 10.15am-2.00pm

The authoritarian regimes of the Middle East and the Arab Uprisings. Democracy in the Middle East vs. authoritarian resilience: Theoretical discussions and policy implications

Heydemann, Steven (2007) Upgrading Authoritarianism in the Arab World, Saban Center Analysis Paper, No. 13.

Pace, Michelle/Francesco Cavatorta (2012) The Arab Uprisings in Theoretical Perspective Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 125-139.

Heydemann, Steven/Reinoud Leenders (2013): Authoritarian Governance in Syria and Iran, in S. Heydemann and R. Leenders (Eds.) Iran and Syria, Middle East Authoritarianisms. Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran (Stanford: Stanford University Press), pp. 1-16

Hinnebusch, Raymond (2012) Syria: from International Affairs, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 95-113.

 

1/10, conference room, 10.15am-2.00pm M

Democracy in Turkey: The role of the military and the contest between the secularists and the islamists

Polat, Necati 2013: Regime change in Turkey. International Politics Vol. 50, 3, 435

Heper, Metin (2011) Civil-Military Relations in Turkey: Toward a Liberal Model? Turkish Studies, 12:2, 241-252.

Karaosmanolu, Ali L. (2011) Transformation of Turkey's Civil-Military Relations Culture and International Environment, Turkish Studies, 12:2, 253-264.

Cizre, Democracy, Islam and Secularism in Turkey. New York: Columbia University Press, 122- 148.

 

2/10, conference room, 10.15am-2.00pm M

Developments in the relation between Turkey and the EU

Oguzlu, H. Tarik (2012) Turkey and the European Union: Europeanization Without Membership, Turkish Studies, 13:2, 229-243.

Lagendijk, Joost 2013: TurkeyDemocracy, Islam and Secularism in Turkey. New York: Columbia University Press, 166-188.

The Commission to the European Parliament and the Council 2012: Conclusions on Turkey. Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2012-2013" (extract). http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2012/package/tr_conclusions_2012_en.pdf

Wood, Steve (2013) Turkey and Europe: Identity and Other Crises, Turkish Studies, 14:2, 272-291.

 

4/10, conference room, 10.15-2.00pm

Migration in the Mediterranean

Lutterbeck, Derek (2013) Across the Desert, Across the Sea: Migrant Smuggling into and from Libya, in Peter Seeberg/Zaid Eyadat: Migration, Security, and Citizenship in the Middle East: New Perspectives (New York, Palgrave), pp. 137-166.

Peter Seeberg (2013): The Arab Uprisings and the EU's Migration Policies Democracy and Security, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, pp. 157-176.

Carrera, Sergio, Leonhard den Hertog and Joanna Parkin (2012) EU Migration Policy in the wake of the Arab Spring. What prospects for EU-Southern Mediterranean Relations? MEDPRO Technical Report No. 15/August 2012, http://www.medpro-foresight.eu/system/files/MEDPRO%20TR%20No%2015%20WP9%20Carrera.pdf

Lutterbeck. Derek (2007): Policing the EU

 

7/10, conference room, 10.15am-2.00pm

Migration in MENA

Fargues, Philippe (2013; ed.) EU Neighbourhood Migration Report 2013, selected countries: Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, Palestine) MPC, Florence:

http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/27394/MPC_NeighMigration.pdf?sequence=5 , pp. 9-24, 103-116, 171-180, 181-194.

Van Vliet, Sam and Guita Hourani: Refugees of the Arab Spring. The Syrian Refugees in Lebanon April 2011-April 2012, The Center for Migration and Refugee Studies, The American University of Cairo. 

8/10, room 152, 2.15-5.00pm M

The Kurdish question and Turkish Identity: Problems created by Kemalist nationalism and modernization policy

 

Satana, Nil S. (2012) The Kurdish Issue in June 2011 Elections: Continuity or Change in Turkey's Democratization? Turkish Studies, 13:2, 169-189.

Oran, Baskin: http://www.baskinoran.com/makale/FPC-2010-1314.pdf

Yegen, Mesut 2011: The Kurdish Question in Turkey: Denial to recognition. In: Casier, Marlies & Jongerden, Joost 2011: Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 67-84.

Sater, James 2013: Citizenship in the Middle East

Efegil, Ertan (2011) Analysis of the AKP Government's Policy toward the Kurdish Issue, Turkish Studies, 12:1, 27-40.

 

9/10, conference room, 10.15am-2.00pm M

Turkey and the Middle East: The changes in the way Turkish elites conceive of the Middle East and their Ottoman imperial past

Fidan, Hakan 2013: A Work in Progress: The New Turkish Foreign Policy. Middle East Policy, Vol. XX, No. 1, Spring 2013, pp. 91-96.

DemirtaMiddle East Policy, Vol. XX, No. 1, Spring 2013, pp. 111-120.

Kuru, Ahmet 2013: Muslim Politics without an Policy Briefing, Brookings Doha Centre. February 2013, pp. 1-10.

TIsrael Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3 (Fall 2012), pp. 45-66.

Robins, Philip 2013: TurkeyInternational Affairs 89: 2 (2013) 381

 

November 18, Jordan

The new Middle East and the role of the Islamists

Gray, Doris (2012) Tunisia after the Uprising: Islamist and Secular Quest for WomenMediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 285-303.

Lust, Ellen (2012) Opposition Cooperation and Uprisings in the Arab World, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 425-434.

MikaFRIDE Policy Brief, No. 131, pp. 1-5

Seeberg, Peter (2012) Is an Islamist Democracy Emerging in North Africa? Its Contours and Objectives: A View from the North, EuroMeSCo Brief, No. 42, pp. 1-6.

 

November 19, Jordan

The EU, the Mashreq and the new challenges

Ryan, Curtis (2013) JordanPOMED, Policy Brief, pp. 1-6.

ValbjThe 2013 Parliamentary Elections in Jordan: Three Stories and Some General Lessons, Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 311-317.

Kandil, Hazam (2012) Why did the Egyptian Middle Class March to Tahrir Square? Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 197-217.

Seeberg, Peter (2013) The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt: EU Foreign and Security Policy Challenges with a Special Focus on the Changing Political Setting in the MENA-region, European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 411

Barnes-Dacey, Julien and Daniel Levy (2013) The Regional Struggle for Syria, European Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.ecfr.eu/publications/summary/the_regional_struggle_for_syria213, pp. 5-16, 41-48, 49-54.

 

November 20, Jordan

Elites and opposition in the Arab Mediterranean states

Cavatorta, Francesco & Rikke HaugbMediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 179-197.

HaugbThe Journal of North African Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, 97-112..

Dalmasso, Emanuela (2012) Surfing the Democratic Tsunami in Morocco: Apolitical Society and the Reconfiguration of a Sustainable Authoritarian Regime, Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 217-233.

 

December

Deadline for handing in of synopsis 12 December

 

January

Exam

 

Material :

Barnes-Dacey, Julien and Daniel Levy (2013) The Regional Struggle for Syria, European Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.ecfr.eu/publications/summary/the_regional_struggle_for_syria213, pp. 5-16, 41-48, 49-54.

Carrera, Sergio, Leonhard den Hertog and Joanna Parkin (2012) EU Migration Policy in the wake of the Arab Spring. What prospects for EU-Southern Mediterranean Relations? MEDPRO Technical Report No. 15/August 2012, http://www.medpro-foresight.eu/system/files/MEDPRO%20TR%20No%2015%20WP9%20Carrera.pdf

Cavatorta/HaugbMediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 179-197.

Cizre, Democracy, Islam and Secularism in Turkey. New York: Columbia University Press, 122- 148.

Commission to the European Parliament and the Council 2012: Conclusions on Turkey. Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2012-2013" (extract). http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2012/package/tr_conclusions_2012_en.pdf

Dalmasso, Emanuela (2012) Surfing the Democratic Tsunami in Morocco: Apolitical Society and the Reconfiguration of a Sustainable Authoritarian Regime, Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 217-233.

DemirtaMiddle East Policy, Vol. XX, No. 1, Spring 2013, pp. 111-120.

Efegil, Ertan (2011) Analysis of the AKP Government's Policy toward the Kurdish Issue, Turkish Studies, 12:1, 27-40.

Fargues, Philippe (2013; ed.) EU Neighbourhood Migration Report 2013, selected countries: Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, Palestine) MPC, Florence:

http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/27394/MPC_NeighMigration.pdf?sequence=5 , pp. 9-24, 103-116, 171-180, 181-194.

Fidan, Hakan 2013: A Work in Progress: The New Turkish Foreign Policy. Middle East Policy, Vol. XX, No. 1, Spring 2013, pp. 91-96.

Gray, Doris (2012) Tunisia after the Uprising: Islamist and Secular Quest for WomenMediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 285-303.

HaugbThe Journal of North African Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 97-112.

Heper, Metin (2011) Civil-Military Relations in Turkey: Toward a Liberal Model? Turkish Studies, 12:2, 241-252.

Heydemann, Steven (2007) Upgrading Authoritarianism in the Arab World, Saban Center Analysis Paper, No. 13.

Heydemann, Steven/Reinoud Leenders (2013): Authoritarian Governance in Syria and Iran, in S. Heydemann and R. Leenders (Eds.) Iran and Syria, Middle East Authoritarianisms. Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran (Stanford: Stanford University Press), pp. 1-16

Hinnebusch, Raymond (2012) Syria: from International Affairs, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 95-113.

Hollis, Rosemary (2012) No friends of democratization: EuropeInternational Affairs, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 81-94.

Kandil, Hazam (2012) Why did the Egyptian Middle Class March to Tahrir Square? Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 197-217.

Karaosmanolu, Ali L. (2011) Transformation of Turkey's Civil-Military Relations Culture and International Environment, Turkish Studies, 12:2, 253-264.

Kausch, Kristina (2013) The End of the (Southern) Neighbourhood, IEMed/EuroMeSCo, No. 18, pp. 1-40.

Khader, Bichara (2013) The European Union and the Arab World: from the Rome Treaty to the Arab Spring, IEMed/EuroMeSCo, Working Paper, No. 17, pp. 1-46.

Kuru, Ahmet 2013: Muslim Politics without an Policy Briefing, Brookings Doha Centre. February 2013, pp. 1-10.

Lagendijk, Joost 2013: TurkeyDemocracy, Islam and Secularism in Turkey. New York: Columbia University Press, 166-188.

Lust, Ellen (2012) Opposition Cooperation and Uprisings in the Arab World, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 425-434.

Lutterbeck, Derek (2013) Across the Desert, Across the Sea: Migrant Smuggling into and from Libya, in Peter Seeberg/Zaid Eyadat: Migration, Security, and Citizenship in the Middle East: New Perspectives (New York, Palgrave), pp. 137-166.

Mika

Oguzlu, H. Tarik (2012) Turkey and the European Union: Europeanization Without Membership, Turkish Studies, 13:2, 229-243.

Oran, Baskin: http://www.baskinoran.com/makale/FPC-2010-1314.pdf

Pace/Cavatorta (2012) The Arab Uprisings in Theoretical Perspective Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 125-139.

Polat, Necati 2013: Regime change in Turkey. International Politics Vol. 50, 3, 435

Robins, Philip 2013: TurkeyInternational Affairs 89: 2 (2013) 381

Ryan, Curtis (2013) JordanPOMED, Policy Brief, pp. 1-6.

Satana, Nil S. (2012) The Kurdish Issue in June 2011 Elections: Continuity or Change in Turkey's Democratization? Turkish Studies, 13:2, 169-189.

Sater, James 2013: Citizenship in the Middle East

Seeberg, Peter (ed., 2007). EU and the Mediterranean. Foreign Policy and Security. Odense, University Press of Southern Denmark, pp. 7-59, 141-174.

Seeberg, Peter (2009) The EU as a realist actor in normative clothes: EU democracy promotion in Lebanon and the European Neighbourhood Policy, Democratization, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 81-99.

Seeberg, Peter (2010) Union for the Mediterranean Middle East Critique, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 287-302.

Seeberg, Peter (2012) Is an Islamist Democracy Emerging in North Africa? Its Contours and Objectives: A View from the North, EuroMeSCo Brief, No. 42, pp. 1-6.

Peter Seeberg (2013): The Arab Uprisings and the EU's Migration Policies

Seeberg, Peter (2013) The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt: EU Foreign and Security Policy Challenges with a Special Focus on the Changing Political Setting in the MENA-region, European Foreign Affairs Review, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 411

TIsrael Studies, Vol. 17, No. 3 (Fall 2012), pp. 45-66.

ValbjThe 2013 Parliamentary Elections in Jordan: Three Stories and Some General Lessons, Mediterranean Politics, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 311-317.

Van Vliet, Sam and Guita Hourani: Refugees of the Arab Spring. The Syrian Refugees in Lebanon April 2011-April 2012, The Center for Migration and Refugee Studies, The American University of Cairo.

Wood, Steve (2013) Turkey and EUrope: Identity and Other Crises, Turkish Studies, 14:2, 272-291.

Yegen, Mesut 2011: The Kurdish Question in Turkey: Denial to recognition. In: Casier, Marlies & Jongerden, Joost 2011: Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey. Oxon: Routledge, pp. 67-84.

Suggested supplementary reading

Barcelona Euromed Forum (2012) What Economic Governance for Arab Transitions? IEMed Documents 8, pp. 1-147 (suggested reading, can be printed from this link:

http://www.iemed.org/publicacions-en/historic-de-publicacions/docs-iemed/8.-what-economic-governance-for-arab-transitions)

Janning, Josef & Frontini, Andrea (2012) eds.: The Arab Spring one year later: voices from North Africa, Middle East and Europe, EPC Issue Paper, No. 69, pp. 1-55 can be printed from this link:

http://www.epc.eu/documents/uploads/pub_2825_the_arab_spring_one_year_later.pdf

de Vasconcelos, Listening to unfamiliar voices , Institute for Security Studies, European Union, pp. 1-132, (suggested reading, can be printed from this link:

http://www.iss.europa.eu/publications/detail/article/listening-to-unfamiliar-voices-the-arab-democratic-wave/)

Electronic resources

Relevant Homepages on Euro-Mediterranean Cooperation

Council of the European Union
The ministers of the Member States meet within the Council of the European Union. Depending on the issue on the agenda, each country will be represented by the minister responsible for that subject (foreign affairs, finance, social affairs, transport, agriculture, etc.). The Council is thus the main decision-making body of the European Union.
Main site: http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/council-eu/index_en.htm

EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)
CSDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU and is the domain of EU policy covering defence and military aspects. CSDP aims to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities in conflict prevention and crisis management.
Main site: http://eeas.europa.eu/cfsp/index_en.htm

The ministers of the Member States meet within the Council of the European Union. Depending on the issue on the agenda, each country will be represented by the minister responsible for that subject (foreign affairs, finance, social affairs, transport, agriculture, etc.). The Council is thus the main decision-making body of the European Union. Main site: CSDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU and is the domain of EU policy covering defence and military aspects. CSDP aims to strengthen the EU's external ability to act through the development of civilian and military capabilities in conflict prevention and crisis management. Main site:

European Commission
The European Commission is the EU's executive body. It represents and upholds the interests of Europe as a whole. It drafts proposals for new European laws, manages the day-to-day business of implementing EU policies and the spending of EU funds. The Commission also makes sure that everyone abides by the European treaties and laws.

European Union: External Action
EU www.eeas.europa.eu

The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)
ENP offers EU neighbours a privileged relationship, building upon a mutual commitment to common values (democracy and human rights, rule of law, good governance, market economy principles and sustainable development). The objective of ENP is to avoid the emergence of new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and its neighbours and instead strengthening the prosperity, stability and security of all.
Main Site: www.ec.europa.eu

Treaty of Lisbon - Taking Europe into the 21st Century
The Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1st of December 2009. The treaty provides the EU with modern institutions and optimised working methods to tackle both efficiently and effectively the challenges of today's world..
Main Site: www.europa.eu

Union for the Mediterranean

The Union for the Mediterranean was created by 43 Euro-Mediterranean Heads of State and Government in Paris on 13 July 2008. The Statutes of the Secretariat were adopted on the 3 March 2010 by the Senior Officials of the Member States of the UfM. A headquarters agreement was concluded between the UfMS and the Government of Spain on 4 May 2010.

http://www.ufmsecretariat.org/en/

Relevant Research Centers, think tanks and Networks on Euro-Mediterranean Cooperation

Anna Lindh Foundation for the Dialogue between Cultures
The Anna Lindh Foundation is an organisation shared by the 43 countries of the Union for the Mediterranean. It aims to bring people together to improve mutual respect between cultures and to support civil society working for a common future of the region.

Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM)

Located at the European University Institute, the Migration Policy Centre (MPC) conducts field as well as archival research, both of which are scientifically robust and policy-relevant at European level and also globally, targeting policy-makers as well as politicians. This research provides tools for addressing migration challenges, by producing policy-oriented research on aspects of migration, asylum and mobility in Europe and in countries located along migration routes to Europe.

Main site: http://www.migrationpolicycentre.eu/

Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS)
CEPS is a policy think tank in Brussels, providing research and activities on economic and international policy matters.

European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR)
ECFR
is a pan-European think tank.

European Institute for Research on Mediterranean and Euro-Arab Cooperation (MEDEA)

European Policy Institutes Network (EPIN)
EPIN is a network of think tanks and policy institutes focusing on current EU and European political and policy debates. EPIN aims to contribute to the debate on the future of Europe through expert analysis and commentary and by providing easy access to understanding the different national debates.

Euro-Mediterranean Study Commission (EuroMeSCo)
EuroMeSCo is concerned with creating lasting cooperative professional relationships with similar non-governmental and independent organisations. It seeks to construct relationships between Europe, the Maghreb and the Mashriq on a North-South and South-South basis, in order to widen the forum for debate on matters of mutual concern. Such issues are related to the EMP and the ENP, and the network provides a forum for the debate of essential matters that might otherwise prove to be sensitive issues for governments within the EMP.
Main Site: www.euromesco.net

Forum EuroM
The FEMISE Association is a Euro-Mediterranean network. The network present economic and social research and represent the two sides of the Mediterranean.

FRIDE - A European Think Tank for Global Action
FRIDE is a think tank based in Madrid that aims to provide innovative thinking on Europe.

Institut Europeau de la Mediterr
IEMed is a think tank specialised in Euro-Mediterranean relations and an actor in the dialogue between the EU and the other Mediterranean countries. It describes itself as a Mediterranean lobby close to institutions and public opinion.
Main Site: http://www.iemed.org

IEMed is a think tank specialised in Euro-Mediterranean relations and an actor in the dialogue between the EU and the other Mediterranean countries. It describes itself as a Mediterranean lobby close to institutions and public opinion. Main Site:

Institute for Palestine Studies (IPS)
IPS is an institute devoted to research, analysis, and publication on Palestinian affairs and the Arab-Israeli conflict.
Main Site: www.palestine-studies.org

International Organization for Migration (IOM)

Established in 1951, IOM is the leading inter-governmental organization in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners. With 151 member states, a further 12 states holding observer status and offices in over 100 countries, IOM is dedicated to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all. It does so by providing services and advice to governments and migrants.

Main Site: http://www.iom.int/

European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS)
EUISS is an agency of the European Union, operating under the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). Its goals are to find a common security culture for the EU, to help develop and project the CFSP, and to enrich Europe.

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA)
IDEA is an intergovernmental organisation that supports sustainable democracy worldwide. Its mission is to support sustainable democratic change by providing comparative knowledge, and assisting in democratic reform, and influencing policies and politics.

Relevant Journals and Periodicals on Euro-Mediterranean Cooperation

British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, is a refereed, peer-reviewed academic journal published for the British Society for Middle Eastern Studies (BRISMES). The editors aim to maintain a balance in the journal's coverage between the modern social sciences and the more traditional disciplines associated with Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, is an interdisciplinary journal on Asia, Africa and the Near and Middle East. It carries coverage of the languages, cultures and civilisations of these regions from ancient times to the present.
Main Site: www.journals.cambridge.org

Cambridge Review of International Affairs, publishes peer-reviewed scholarship on international affairs, particularly in the fields of international relations, international law and international political economy. It is committed to diversity of approach and method and encourages the submission of multi- and inter-disciplinary academic contributions from academics and policymakers.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Democratization, is a peer-reviewed journal aiming to promote a better understanding of democratisation and to encourage debate on the many aspects of democratisation that are of interest to policy-makers, administrators and journalists, aid and development personnel, as well as to all those involved in education.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

European Foreign Affairs Review, focuses on the political, legal and economic aspects of the EUwww.kluwerlawonline.com

Foreign Affairs, is a forum for discussion of American foreign policy and international affairs. It is published by the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), a non-profit and nonpartisan membership organisation dedicated to improving the understanding of U.S. foreign policy and international affairs through the free exchange of ideas.

Geopolitics, is a peer-reviewed journal seeking to explore the theoretical implications of contemporary geopolitics and geopolitical change with particular reference to territorial problems and issues of state sovereignty.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Government and Opposition, is an international journal of comparative politics. Among other things it focuses on developments in the theory and practice of democracy, the evolution of political parties, and worldwide politics - including the politics of the European Union.

International Journal of Middle East Studies, publishes research on politics, society and culture in the Middle East from the seventh century to the present day. The journal also covers Spain, south-east Europe, and parts of Africa, South Asia, and the former Soviet Union for subjects of relevance to Middle Eastern civilization.
Main Site: www.journals.cambridge.org

IPRIS Maghreb Review, is a new, monthly publication by The Portuguese Institute of International Relations and Security (IPRIS). Featuring exclusively the five countries of the Greater Arab Maghreb, i.e. Mauritania, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya, it provides analyses on issues pertaining to political, economic, social, and cultural dynamics in the Maghreb, regional developments in the Greater Maghreb area, and the role of the five countries in the international system.
Main Site: www.ipris.org

Journal of Common Market Studies (JCMS), publishes articles on the latest European Integration issues. It is committed to deepening the theoretical understanding of European integration and aims to achieve a disciplinary balance between political science, economics and international relations, including the various sub disciplines such as international political economy.

Journal of Modern African Studies, offers a quarterly survey of developments in modern African politics and society. Its main emphasis is on current issues in African politics, economies, societies and international relations.
Main Site: www.journals.cambridge.org

Journal of North African Studies, is a peer-reviewed journal. Its content cover both country-based and regional themes which range from historical topics to sociological, anthropological, economic, diplomatic and other issues.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Journal of Palestine Studies, is a journal devoted exclusively to Palestinian affairs and the Arab-Israeli conflict. It brings timely and comprehensive information on the region's political, religious, and cultural concerns.
Main Site: www.palestine-studies.org

Mediterranean Politics, is an academic journal focusing on the politics, international relations and political economy of the entire Mediterranean area. It gives extensive attention to the expanding relationships between Europe and its southern neighbours, including the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Middle East, is a monthly magazine dealing with contemporary issues in the region.

Middle East Critique, promotes an academic and critical examination of the history and contemporary political, social, economic and cultural aspects of Middle Eastern countries.
Main Site: www.tandf.co.uk

Middle East Economic Digest, is a weekly magazine providing business news from the Middle East.
Main Site: www.meed.com

Middle East Journal, provides research and analysis, as well as source material, on the area from Morocco to Pakistan and including Central Asia. It provides the background necessary for an understanding and appreciation of the region's political and economic development, cultural heritage, ethnic and religious diversity.
Main Site: www.mei.edu

Middle East Report, provides news and perspectives about the Middle East not available from mainstream news sources. The magazine has developed a reputation for independent analysis of events and developments in the Middle East.
Main Site: www.merip.org

Middle East Policy, provides a forum for viewpoints on recent developments that affect the US Middle East Policy. The Middle East Policy Council is an independent, non-profit, non-partisan educational organisation. Its mission is to foster public discussion of the political, economic, cultural, and security issues that affect the policies of the United States in the Middle East.
Main Site: http://www.mepc.org/journal

New African, is a monthly magazine dealing with contemporary issues on the continent.

Parliamentary Affairs, is a peer-reviewed academic quarterly covering all the aspects of government and politics directly or indirectly connected with parliament and parliamentary systems in Britain and throughout the world.
Main Site: www.pa.oxfordjournals.org

Review of International Studies, publishes a significant number of research articles, review articles which survey new contributions to the field, a forum section to accommodate debates and replies, and occasional interviews with leading scholars.
Main Site: www.journals.cambridge.org

Turkish Studies. Turkey is a country whose importance is rapidly growing in international affairs. A rapidly developing democratic state with a strong economy, complex society, active party system, and powerful armed forces, Turkey is playing an increasingly critical role in Europe, the Middle East, and the Caucasus.

. Turkey is a country whose importance is rapidly growing in international affairs. A rapidly developing democratic state with a strong economy, complex society, active party system, and powerful armed forces, Turkey is playing an increasingly critical role in Europe, the Middle East, and the Caucasus.

Given Turkey

Main cite: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ftur20

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